# Courses Physics

**Department offers the following degrees:**

**· General Degree – Bachelor of Science**

(Level 1G, 2G, and 3G )

**· Special Degree – Bachelor of Science (Special) Degree in Physics**

(Level 1G, 2G, 3G, 3M and 4M)

**· Applied Science Degree – Bachelor of Science (Applied Science) Degree in Physics ** (Level 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4X)

## {tab=Level 1G}

**Level 1G Course Units (Amended on September 2014)**

**Core Course Units**

{slide= **PHY101GC2: ****Practical Physics I **|closed|scroll}(90 hours of practical)

**Objectives:**

- Improve skills in basic measurements; every measurement involves an estimation of errors
- Assess different types of experimental errors and propose methods to reduce them
- Plan and execute experiments to extract maximum possible information and report scientifically

**Course Description:**

- Students have to attend weekly practical sessions each of three hours duration
- Students will be trained on estimating and minimizing experimental errors
- On completion of each weekly experiment, students should submit a brief report
- During each semester, students have to submit at least two full reports on experiments chosen by the lecturer in-charge

**Evaluation:**

Continuous assessment on practical classes and lab reports | 20 % |

Four full reports | 20 % |

End of semester practical examinations | 40 % |

In-course assessment on basic measurements and error analysis | 20 % |

**Recommended Readings:**

- G.L. Squires, Practical Physics (4th edition), Cambridge University Press (2001)
- Yaakov Kraftmakher, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics (2
^{nd}edition), World Scientific (2014) - Paolo Fornasini, The Uncertainty in Physical Measurements: An Introduction to Data Analysis in the Physics Laboratory, Springer (2008)

{slide= **PHY104GC3: Mechanics, Waves and Vibration **|closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

** Objectives:**

- Apply the principles of Newtonian mechanics to a wide variety of problems observed in nature
- Solve different types of vibratory motions using the basic principles of physics
- Analyze different kinds of vibrations and waves

**Syllabus:**

**Mechanics:**

- Laws of motion, inertial and non-inertial frames of reference, inertial mass, inertial forces, conservation of mass and momentum, work and kinetic energy, conservative forces and potential energy, conservation of total energy, collision of particles.
- Motion in the centre of mass frame of reference, motion relative to a rotating frame of reference, torque and angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum, rotational motion of rigid bodies, moment of inertia, gyroscopic motion

Fluid Mechanics:

- Fluid motion, Bernoulli’s theorem, Poiseuille’s law for flow through a capillary tube, Stokes’ law.

Gravitational field:

- The law of universal gravitation, gravitational mass and the principle of equivalence, motion of planets and satellites, Kepler’s laws, atomic analogue of planetary motion, concept of reduced mass.

Vibrations:

- Simple harmonic and damped harmonic oscillations, free and forced oscillations, coupled oscillations, normal modes, resonance, oscillation in an LC circuit, relative phases of voltages and currents, phasor diagrams, superposition of oscillations, beats, amplitude modulation.

Complex representation of oscillations:

- Representation of oscillations in the complex plane, complex current and voltage in resistors, capacitors and inductors, complex impedance, electrical resonance in an LCR circuit, simple filter, bandwidth, mechanical impedance.

Waves:

- Waves on a string, 1-D wave equation, sinusoidal solutions, running and standing waves, the wave-vector, superposition of waves, phase and group velocities, beats, Doppler Effect.

**Evaluation: **

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Daniel Kleppner and Robert Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics (2
^{nd}edition), Cambridge University Press (2013) - David J. Morin, Problems and Solutions in Introductory Mechanics, Create-Space Independent Publishing Platform (2014)
- H.J. Pain, The Physics of Vibrations and Waves (6
^{th}edition), Wiley (2005) - A.P. French, Vibrations and Waves, The MIT Introductory Physics Series, CBS Publishers and Distributors (2003)

{slide= **PHY105GC3: Electricity, Electromagnetic Fields and Electronics**|closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Develop problem solving skills in electric circuits
- Summarize basic laws of electromagnetic fields
- Explain the working principles of electronic components and their applications

**Syllabus:**

**Electrical circuits:**

- Voltage, current and charge in circuits, electrical resistance, Kirchhoff’s Laws, resistors in series and parallel, circuits with exponential decays, discharge of a capacitor through a resistor, decay of current through an inductor.

Electromagnetic fields:

- Coulomb’s Law, electric field, electrostatic potential, Gauss’s Law in electrostatics, capacitance, energy in electrostatics, force on moving charges, magnetic flux density, Ampere’s Law, magnetic flux in circuits, Faraday’s Law, self-inductance, energy in magneto-statics, motion of charged particles in electric and magnetic fields, J.J. Thomson’s experiment.

Electronics:

p-n junctions:

- Diodes and their characteristics, rectification, smoothing, voltage regulation using Zener diodes, photovoltaic devices, light emitting devices and photodiodes.

Transistors:

- Junction transistors and their characteristics, some basic transistor circuits, the common emitter, common base and common collector amplifiers, Field Effect Transistors (FET) and their characteristics, FET amplifiers, feedback circuits.

Op-amp and digital circuits:

- Typical operational amplifiers, the 741 op-amp, functions of op-amps to perform mathematical operations.

Introduction to digital electronics:

- Boolean algebra, logic gates, combinational circuits, introduction to flip-flops and sequential circuits.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- B.I. Bleaney and B. Bleaney, Electricity and Magnetism, Vol 1 (3
^{rd}edition), Oxford University Press (2013) - I.S. Grant and W.R. Phillips, Electromagnetism (2
^{nd}edition), Wiley-Blackwell (1990) - J. Millman, C.C. Halkias and S. Jit, Electronic Devices and Circuits (3
^{rd}edition), McGraw Hill Education (India) Pvt. Ltd. (2013) - M. Morris Mano and Michael D. Ciletti, Digital Design with an Introduction to the Verilog HDL (5
^{th}edition), Pearson Education (2013)

{/slides}

{tab=Level 2G}

**Level 2G Course Units (Amended on September 2014)**

**Core Course Units** {slide=

**PHY201GC2: Practical Physics II**|closed|scroll}

(90 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Recall the basic laboratory skills
- Improve skills on experimental measurements in optics, electromagnetism and electronics
- Design and present content-oriented attractive posters

**Course Description:**

- Students have to attend weekly practical sessions each of three hours duration
- Students will be trained on preparing and presenting good scientific posters
- On completion of each weekly experiment, students should submit a brief report
- During each semester, students have to submit two full reports on experiments chosen by the lecturer in-charge

**Evaluation:**

Continuous assessment on practical classes and brief lab reports | 20% |

Four full reports | 20% |

End of semester practical examinations | 40% |

Poster presentation during the course | 20% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- J.F. James, An Introduction to Practical Laboratory Optics, Cambridge University Press (2014)
- Yaakov Kraftmakher, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics (2
^{nd}edition), World Scientific (2014) - G.L. Squires, Practical Physics (4
^{th}edition), Cambridge University Press (2001)

{slide= **PHY204GC2: Solid State Physics**|closed|scroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Distinguish various types of bonds between atoms and the structures of crystals
- Explain elastic, thermal and electrical properties of matter
- Classify insulators, semiconductors and conductors

**Syllabus:**

**Structure of matter:**

- Nature of matter, charge to mass ratio of electrons, mass spectrograph, determination of the electron charge,crystals, types of crystals, crystal structures, unit cells, FCC, BCC and HCP structures, crystal defects, X-ray diffraction, nuclear mass and radius, nuclear particles, isotopes, isobars.

Inter-atomic forces:

- Molecules and binding forces, Van der Waals, ionic, covalent and metallic bonds.

Elastic and thermal properties of solids:

- Monoatomic and diatomic linear chains, boundary conditions, phonon density of states, heat capacity of solids, Debye model, thermal expansion, Grüneisenparameter,thermal conductivity of insulators, phonon-phonon scattering (normal and umklapp), scattering by defects, scattering at boundaries.

Electrical properties:

- Free electron model of metals, qualitative introduction to band theory of solids, metals, semiconductors and insulators, electrons and holes, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, donors and acceptors, p-n junctions.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (8
^{th}edition), Wiley(2004) - M.A. Wahab, Solid State Physics: Structure and Properties of Materials (2
^{nd}edition), Alpha Science International Ltd. (2005) - M.A. Omar, Elementary Solid State Physics: Principles and Applications (4
^{th}edition), Addison-Wesley (1994)

{slide= **PHY205GC2: Optics and Special Relativity**|closed|scroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

** ****Objectives**:

- Illustrate the basic principles of geometrical optics
- Explain interference, diffraction and polarization
- Utilize the concepts of special relativity in physics problems

**Syllabus:**

**Ray Optics:**

- Huygen’s principle, spherical mirrors, thick and thin lenses, lens combinations, lens aberration, eye pieces, telescope, microscope.

Interference:

- Wave nature of light, two beam interference on non-reflecting films, Michelson interferometer, Rayleigh refractometer, multiple beam interference, Fabry–Perot interferometer and its chromatic resolving power, interference filters.

FraunhÖfer diffraction:

- Single slit diffraction, chromatic resolving power of a prism, resolving power of telescopes and microscopes.
- Double slit diffraction, Michelson’s stellar interferometer, multiple slit diffraction, diffraction and reflection gratings, chromatic resolving power of gratings, echelon gratings.

Fresnel diffraction:

- Diffraction at a straight edge, diffraction at circular apertures and obstacles, the zone plate.

Polarization:

- Polarization by absorption, polarization by reflection, scattering and double refraction, properties of ordinary and extra-ordinary rays, quarter wave and half wave plates, interference of polarized light.

Special theory of relativity:

- Invariance of the velocity oflight in vacuumand its experimental confirmation, Einstein’s postulates, Lorentz transformation of space and time co-ordinates,time dilation, length contraction and their experimental confirmations, transformation of velocities, mass-velocity and mass-energy relationships, transformation of momentum and energy, simple applications of special relativity.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (4
^{th}edition), McGraw-Hill (1976) - N. Subrahmanyam, B.V. Lal and M.N. Avadhanulu, A Textbook of Optics, S. Chand and Co. Ltd. (2006)
- A.P.French, Special Relativity, The MIT Introductory Physics Series, W.W. Norton and Company (1968)

{slide= **PHY206GC2: Electromagnetism**|closed|scroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)** **

**Objectives:**

- Recall basic mathematics required to formulate electromagnetic theory
- Apply Maxwell’s equations in problems related to electro-statics and magneto-statics
- Make use of electromagnetic theory to solve problems in changing electromagnetic fields

**Syllabus:**

**Electrostatics: **

- Coulomb’s law, electric field (
**E**) and potential (**V**), Gauss’s law in vacuum, Laplace’s and Poisson’s equation, electric dipoles, uniqueness theorems, conducting sphere in electric field, the method of images: point charge near conducting sphere and line charge near conducting cylinder as examples, capacitance of parallel cylinders, work and energy in electrostatics, force on a charged conductor. - Isotropic dielectrics, polarization charges, Gauss’s law in dielectric, permittivity and susceptibility, properties of electric displacement (
**D**) and electric field (**E**),boundary conditions at dielectric boundaries, relationship betweenelectric field (**E**) and polarization (**P**), thin slab in electric field, dielectric sphere in an electric field, local fields inside dielectrics, Clausius-Mossotti equation.

Magnetostatics:

- Forces between current carrying elements, Gauss’s law, dipoles, magnetic scalar potential, Ampère’s law, magnetic vector potential.
- Magnetic media, magnetization, permeability and magnetic susceptibility, properties of magnetic field (B) and magnetic field intensity (H), boundary conditions at surfaces, methods of calculating B and H, magnetisable sphere in a uniform magnetic field, electromagnets, magnetic circuits, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, Curie-Weiss law, domains, hysteresis, permanent magnets.

Time varying EM fields:

- Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s law, magnetic energy, self-inductance, inductance of a long solenoid,coaxial cylinders, parallel cylinders, mutual inductance, transformers, displacement current, Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics (4
^{th}edition), Addition-Wesley (2012) - R.P. Feynman,R. B. Leighton and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, VolII, Addison-Wesley (1964)
- W.J. Duffin, Electricity and Magnetism (4
^{th}edition),McGraw-Hill(1973)

** **

{/slides}

**Elective Course Units**

{slide= **PHY222GE2: Computational Physics**|closed|scroll}

(20 hours of lectures and 30 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Outline the features of Matlab/C
^{++} - Apply numerical methods in solving physics problems
- Design algorithms to simulate physics problems

**Syllabus:**

**Introduction: **

- Programming languages and algorithms, scientific software libraries.

Programming:

- Scientific programming in Matlab/C
^{++}.

Numerical methods with programming exercises in Matlab/C^{++}:

- Root finding, solving linear systems by direct and iterative methods, interpolation and extrapolation, differentiation and integration, curve fitting, matrices and eigenvalue problems, linear and nonlinear equations, eigen-systems, solution of ordinary differential equations, elementary statistics, Fourier transforms.

Computer simulation of the physics problems:

- The motion of falling objects, two body problems, mini solar system, two body scattering, harmonic oscillator, electric circuit oscillator, electric field due to a charge distribution.

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage: Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)**

** **

**Recommended Readings:**

- Stormy Attaway, MATLAB, A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving (3
^{rd }edition), Elsevier Inc. (2013) - P.L. Devries and J.E. Hasbun, A First Course in Computational Physics (2
^{nd }edition), Jones and Barlett Publishers (2011) - B.R. Hunt, R.L. Lipsmanand J.M. Rosenberg, A Guide to MATLAB for Beginners and Experienced Users (3
^{rd }edition), Cambridge University Press (2014)

** **

{slide= **PHY223GE2: Mathematics for Physics**|closed|scroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Relate mathematical techniques with physics problems
- Utilize vector and matrix analyses in physics
- Apply special functions in solving problems of quantum mechanics and electrodynamics

**Syllabus:**

**Vector analysis:**

- Introductiontovector algebra, vector calculus and their applications in Physics.

Co-ordinate systems:

- Curvilinear co-ordinates and special co-ordinate systems, differential vector operations, separation of variables and their applications in Physics

Matrices:

- Matrix methods of solving simultaneous equations, properties of Hermitian, unitary, Pauli and Diracmatrices; diagonalization of matrices, matrix representation of eigenvalue problems, matrix representation of kets, bras and operators and their applications in quantum mechanics.

Differential equations:

- Introductionto the method of solving first order differential equations, partial differential equations and their applications in solving physics problems.

Special functions:

- BesselandHankelfunctions, Green functions, Hermite, Legendre and other special polynomial functions and their use in solving physics problems.

Integral transforms:

- Introduction to Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms, use of Fourier transformin quantum mechanics to relate wavefunctions in real and momentum spaces, Introduction to Laplace transform and its applications in physics.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Jordan and Smith, Mathematical Techniques (4
^{th}edition), Oxford University press(2008). - Mary L. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences (3
^{rd }edition), John Wiley and Sons (2005). - Chun Wa Wong, Introduction to Mathematical Physics: Methods and Concepts (2
^{nd}edition), Oxford University Press (2013).

{/slides}

**Supplementary Subject Area: Electronics**

**(To those who are not offering physics as a principal subject at level 2G)**

**Electronic Course Units (Electives for Non-Physics Students)**

{slide= **ELE241GE2: Basic Electronics**|closed|scroll}

(20 hrs of lectures and 30 hrs of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Develop the response of passive electronic components to alternating current
- Describe insulators, conductors and different kinds of semiconductors
- Discuss the characteristics and applications of p-n junction diodes and transistors in basic analogue and digital circuits

**Syllabus:**

**Alternating current:**

- Production of alternating emf (electro-motive force), definition of frequency, phase and period, sine wave and other wave forms, ac quantities, rms (root-mean-square) and peak values, ac in a resistor, ac in a capacitor, capacitive reactance, ac in an inductor, inductive reactance, LCR circuits.

Semiconductors:

- Origin of energy bands, classification of solids into conductors, semiconductors and insulators, intrinsic semiconductors, extrinsic semiconductors, position of Fermi level, p-n junction diodes.

p-n junction diodes:

- Fabrication of p-n junctions, formation of a depletion region and its properties, biasing of p-n junctions, forward biased p-n junctions, reverse biased p-n junctions, avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown, p-n junction diode as a rectifier; half wave rectifier, full wave rectifier, smoothing and voltage regulation, waveform shaping, clipping and clamping, tunnel diodes, junction diodes as sensors and radiation detectors.

Bipolar JunctionTransistor(BJT):

- Fabrication of BJTs, transistor action, transistor configuration, transistor characteristics, input and transfer characteristics, output characteristics, transistor biasing, fixed bias, collector bias, potential divider bias, ac and dc load line, action of a BJT as a voltage amplifier, action of a BJT as a switch, thyristor and its operation, triac and its applications.

Operational amplifier:

- Characteristics, parameters of operational amplifiers, inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, function of operational amplifiers as voltage follower, summer, subtractor, integrator and differentiator.

Basic digital circuit:

- Boolean Algebra, logic simplification, Boolean operation and expression, laws and rules of Boolean Algebra,AND, NOT, OR, NAND and NOR gates and their functions, De Morgan’s Theorem, truth tables, half adder and full adder, X-OR and X-NOR gates.

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage:** Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

** **

**Recommended Readings:**

- W.H. Kayt, Jr.J.E. Kemmerly and S.M. Durbin, Engineering Circuit Analysis (6
^{th }edition), Tata McGraw Hill (2006) - D.A. Neaman, Semiconductor Physics and Devices(3
^{rd}edition), Tata McGraw Hill (2007) - J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics (2
^{nd }edition), Tata McGraw Hill (2002)

{slide= **ELE242GE2: Analogue Electronics – I**|closed|scroll}

(20 hrs of lectures and 30 hrs of practicals)

** **

**Prerequisite:**Should have offered ELE241GE2

**Objectives:**

- Analyze the functions of electronic circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and multi-vibrators
- Design and build amplifiers, oscillators and multi-vibrators
- Discuss different types of power- and feedback- amplifiers

**Syllabus:**

**Unipolar or Field Effect Transistor(FET):**

- Fabrication of FET, transistor action, transistor configuration, transistor characteristics- input and transfer characteristics, output characteristics, transistor biasing-fixed bias, collector bias, potential divider bias, ac and dc load line, action of FET as voltage amplifier, action of FET as switch, Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) and its use.

**Amplifiers:**

**Small signal amplifiers: **

- Single stage BJT amplifier configuration, hybrid model, voltage and currentgain, input and output impedances, common source and common drain amplifiers, FET amplifier analysis, multistage amplifiers, Darlington pair, high frequency amplifiers, high frequency models, Miller’s theorem.

Feedback amplifiers:

- Negative feedback, positive feedback, types of feedback, current feedback, voltage feedback, Bootstrap amplifiers.

Power amplifiers:

- Classes of amplifiers- Class-A amplifier, inductive coupled amplifier, transformer coupled power amplifier, class-B amplifier, complementary symmetric class-B and class AB power amplifiers, push-pull amplifier, Darlington pair class A amplifier.

Oscillators:

- Condition for oscillation, RC oscillators, Wein-Bridge Oscillators, Hartley oscillators, Colpitt’s oscillators and crystal oscillators.

Multi-vibrators:

- Bistable, monostableandastable multi-vibrators

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage:** Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

**Recommended Readings:**

- A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith,Micro Electronic circuits (6
^{th}edition), Oxford University Press (2010) - J. Millman, C.C. Halkias and S. Jit, Millman’s Electronic Devices and Circuits (2
^{nd}edition), Tata McGraw-Hill (2007) - J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics (2
^{nd }edition), Tata McGrawHill(2002)

{/slides}

{tab=Level 3G}

**Level 3G Course Units**

**Core Course Units**

{slide= **PHY301GC2: Practical Physics**|closed|scroll}

(90 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Demonstrateskills on applicationof modern physics and thermal physics concepts
- Exhibit health and safety issues in relation to lasers and other advanced instruments
- Demonstrate the interpersonal skills through group projects and seminar presentations

**Course Description:**

- Students have to attend weekly practical sessions each of three hours duration
- Students will do group-projects and seminar presentations
- On completion of each weekly experiment, students should submit a brief report
- Students have to submit at least two full reports in the first semester and one full report in the second semester on experiments chosen by the lecturer in-charge

**Evaluation:**

Continuous assessment on practical classes and brief lab reports |
20% |

Three full reports |
20% |

End of semester practical examinations |
20% |

Seminar presentation during the course |
20% |

Group project |
20% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- A.C Melissinos and J. Napolitano, Experiments in Modern Physics (2
^{nd}edition), Academic Press (2003) - Yaakov Kraftmakher, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics (2
^{nd}edition), World Scientific (2014) - G.L. Squires, Practical Physics (4
^{th}edition), Cambridge University Press (2001)

{slide= **PHY302GC3:Modern Physics **|closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Outline the inadequacy of classical physics and the need for modern theories
- Apply quantum concepts to understand atomic spectra
- Describe the basics of nuclear and elementary particle physics

**Syllabus:**

**Quantum Physics:**

- Inadequacyof classical mechanics, Photo electric effect, Compton effect, wave particle duality, de Broglie wave, Heisenberg’s uncertainly principle, Schrödinger wave equation, probability density, solution of simple time independent Schrödinger equations-the step potential and the potential well.

Atomic Physics:

- Scattering ofparticles,alpha particle scattering, Thomson atomic model, Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom,Rutherford model of the atom, estimation of the size of the nucleus, Bohr’s theory and its limitations, Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom and its solution, the total, orbital, and magnetic quantum numbers, atomic spectra, Zeeman effect, fine structure of spectra and spin quantum number, many electron atoms, production and properties of X-rays.

Nuclear Physics:

- Nuclear composition, mass and size of nucleus, nuclear forces, nuclear stability, radioactive transformation, liquid drop model of nuclei and its applications, nuclear reactions, nuclear fission and fusion, a brief introduction to elementary particles.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- K.S. Krane, Modern Physics (2
^{nd}edition), Wiley (1995) - J. Taylor, C. Zafiratos and M.A. Dubson, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers (2
^{nd}edition), Addison-Wesley (2003) - A.P. French and E.F. Taylor, Introduction to Quantum Physics (The MIT introductory physics series), W.W. Norton and Company (1978)

{slide= **PHY303GC3:** **Thermal and Statistical Physics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the laws of classical thermodynamics and formulations of statistical physics
- Apply principles of thermodynamics to simple engineering systems
- Make use of kinetic theory to understand the properties of materials

**Syllabus:**

**Thermodynamics:**

- Zeroth law and the concept of temperature, work, heat, internal energy and the first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics, Carnot’s theorem, temperature, entropy, equation of state, Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations and their application to simple systems, production and measurement of low temperatures, the third law of thermodynamics.

Thermal radiation:

- The law of blackbody radiation, application of thermodynamics to blackbody radiation, radiation pyrometer.

Kinetic theory:

- Ideal gases, Van der Waal’s gases, classical theory of specific heats of gases and solids, transport phenomena.

Statistical Physics:

- Thermodynamic probability and its relation to entropy, Boltzmann distribution and its classical limit, partition functions, application to solid like assemblies and gaseous systems, Maxwell’s distribution of velocities in gases.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- M.W. Zemansky and R.H. Dittman,Heat and Thermodynamics (7
^{th}edition), McGraw Hill (1997) - B.N.Roy, Fundamentals of Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics, Wiley (2002)
- M.J. Moran and H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics (5
^{th}edition), Wiley (2006)

** **

{/slides}

**Elective Courses**

{slide= **PHY321GE2: Medical Physics **|closed|scroll}

(25 hours of lectures and tutorials plus 15 hours of clinical site visits)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the principles of physics behind the operation of therapeutic and diagnostic medical equipments such as linear accelerators, MRI, PET and ultrasound scanner
- Explain the physical aspects of radiation dosimetry, treatment planning, dose calculations and distributions
- Identify safety and radiation protection principles and procedures

**Syllabus:**

**Radiation Physics: **

- Review of atomic structure, characteristics of x- rays, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, pair production, nuclear decay, radioactivity, radiation physics, interaction of radiation with matter, radiation detection and radiation dosimetry.

Medical imaging physics:

- Principles of image formation and quality, films and screens, digital imaging, image reconstruction with back projection, X- ray Computed Tomography (CT) and image processing, radiography (mammography and fluoroscopy), principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), mapping and applications, nuclear medicine imaging [Gamma camera, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)], principles and practice of ultrasound imaging.

Radiotherapy physics and radiation protection:

- Medical transducers, standard equipments used in radiotherapy (linear accelerator and Cobalt teletherapy machine), basic physical aspects of photon and electron therapy, radiation treatment planning, dose calculations and distributions, radiation protection, safety considerations for patients and workers, quality assurance ofmedical devices.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 20% |

End of course examination | 70% |

Report on clinical exposure | 10% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- E.B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students, Vienna, IAEA (2005)
- J.T. Bushberg, J.A. Seibert, E.M. LeidholdtJrand J.M. Boone, The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging (3
^{rd }edition), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2011) - W.J. Meredith and J. B. Massey, The Fundamental Physics of Radiology (3
^{rd }edition), Butterworth-Heinemann (1977)

{slide= **PHY322GE2: ****Astrophysics**|closed|scroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Recall the historical developments of astrophysics
- Explain the formation and properties of solar system, stars and galaxies
- Describe the origin and the evolution of the universe

Syllabus:

**Introduction to astrophysics: **

- Historical background of astronomy, units in astronomy and observational measurement techniques, motions of heavenly bodies, celestial sphere and the atlas of stars, uses of optical instruments in astronomy and Doppler Effect.

Solar system:

- The origin of the solar system and extra-solar planets, moon and eclipses, terrestrial and Jovian planets, properties of the Sun.

Stars and galaxies:

- Formation and general properties of stars, measurement of basic stellar properties such as distance, luminosity, spectral classification, mass, density and radii, Stellar evolution and nucleo-synthesis, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, structure of the milky way, other galaxies and their properties.

Cosmology:

- Introduction to cosmology, the Hubble law, origin of the universe, the big bang theory, cosmic background radiation.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- B.W. Carroll and D.A. Ostlie, An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics (2
^{nd}edition), Addison-Wesley (2006) - J. Dufay, Introduction to Astrophysics: The Stars (reissue edition), Dover Publications (2012)
- B. Ryden and B.M. Peterson, Foundations of Astrophysics (1
^{st}edition), Addison-Wesley (2010)

{/slides}

**Supplementary Subject Area: Electronics****Electronics Elective Courses for Non-Physics Students**

{slide= **ELE341GE2:** **Analogue Electronics II**** **|closed|scroll}

#### (20 hours of lectures and 30 hours of practicals)

** Objectives:**

- Discuss the evolution of integrated circuits
- Design, build and test different types of linear amplifier circuits
- Make use of op-amps for applications including mathematical operations

Syllabus:

**Introduction: **

- Evolution of integrated circuits, integrated circuit components, monolithic and hybrid integrated circuits, Large Scale Integrated (LSI) circuits and Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.

Differential amplifiers:

- dc transfer characteristics, common mode and differential mode gains, differential amplifiers with constant current source and differential amplifiers with single ended input and output,typical op-amps- the 741 op-amp.

Practical op-amps:

- Open loop voltage gain, input offset voltage, input bias current, common-mode rejection, phase shift, slew rate, output resistance, operation and types, characteristics.

Applications of op-amps:

- Function of operational amplifiers as subtractor, integrator, differentiator and logarithmic amplifier, analogue computer,rectifiers, feedback limiters, comparators, Schmitt triggers, function generators, digital to analog converters, analog to digital converters, oscillators and 555 timer as a relaxation oscillator, as a pulse generator and as a monostable vibrator.

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

Practical:

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage: **Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

**Recommended Readings:**

- Roy ChoudhuryD, JainB and Shail Jain, Linear Integrated Circuits (4
^{th }edition), New Age Publishers (2010) - Thomas L. Floyd and David Buchla, Basic Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall (1999)
- Sergio Franco, Design With Operational Amplifiers and AnalogIntegrated Circuits, McGraw Hill (1997)

{slide= **ELE342GE2:****Digital Electronics**** **|closed|scroll}

#### (20 hours of lectures and 30 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the principles and uses of logic gates
- Design, construct and test sequential circuits
- Demonstrate skills in the construction of electronic circuits using logic gates.

Syllabus:

**Introduction to digital concepts: **

- Binary digits, logic levels and digital waveforms, basic logic operations, basic logic functions, digital system applications.

Number systems:

- Operations and codes, decimal numbers, binary numbers, decimal to binary conversion, binary arithmetic, octal numbers, hexa-decimal numbers, Binary Coded Decimal (BCD), digital codes, digital system applications, The Karnaugh map.

Logic gates:

- The inverter, The AND gate, The OR gate, The NAND gate, The NOR gate, The Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR gates, digital system applications, logic families.

Digital Circuits:

- Combinational digital circuits: Basic adders, parallel binary adders, comparators, decoders, encoders, multiplexer (data selector), de-multiplexer, parity generators, checkers.
- Sequential digital circuits: Flip-flops, counters, registers and their applications.
- Microcomputer: Central Processing Unit (CPU), The memory- Read Only Memory (ROM), Programmable ROMs (PROMs and EPROMs), Read/Write Random Access Memories (RAMs).

Evaluation:

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage: **Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

**Recommended Readings:**

- M. Morris Mano and Michael D. Ciletti, Digital Design with an Introduction to the Verilog HDL (5
^{th}edition), Pearson Education(2013) - Charles H. Roth, Jr., Fundamentals of Logic Design(4
^{th }edition), Jaico Books (2002) - John. F. Wakerly, Digital Design Principles and Practices(4
^{th }edition), Pearson Education (2007)

{/slides}

{tab=Level 3M}

**Level 3M Course Units**

**Core Course Units**

{slide=**PHY301MC4: Practical Physics IV **|closed|scroll}

(135 hours of Practical and 45 hours of Library work)

**Objectives :**

- To train students with various modern and advanced experimental set-ups and orient them for research.
- Enhance the students’ understanding of various basic concepts in physics through measuring physical quantities.
- To develop the students’ soft skills such as writing scientific reports, learning through discussion and oral presentation of their scientific findings.
- To give an opportunity to the students to develop their experimental skills.

Introduction :

- In this course unit, the students are expected to work independently under the guidance of a senior staff assigned to them by the lecturer in – charge. Practical reports should be submitted in the form of a scientific paper. The students have to orally present an advanced experimental technique and one of their experiments, assigned by the lecturer in – charge, in a seminar to a panel of examiners.

**Evaluation :**

Continuous assessment on practical classes and reports | 40% |

Two end of semester examinations each of three hours duration | 40% |

Seminar presentations | 20% |

**Library Work**

**Objectives :**

- To encourage the students to learn through reading.
- To train the students to do literature survey on an assigned topic.
- To enable the students to access e-resources effectively.
- To develop soft skills such as reading, writing and oral presenting.

**Introduction :**

- In this course module, the students will carry out extensive literature survey on pre-assigned topics using e-resources and library. They are required to submit a report on the topic assigned to them and present it orally in a seminar to a panel of examiners.

**Evaluation :**

Report | 70% |

Seminar Presentation | 30% |

**Weightage: 75% Practical Physics IV and 25% Library Work.**

{slide=**PHY302MC3: ****Classical Mechanics and Relativity **|closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- To understand the basic principles of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of classical mechanics and apply these principles to solve key problems.
- To introduce fundamental conservation laws to analyse mechanical systems.
- To introduce the concept and uses of four vectors in relativistic kinematics.
- To introduce Einstein’s general relativity and cosmology.

Syllabus :

**Classical Mechanics:**

**Lagrangian mechanics:**

- Generalised coordinates, holonomic and non-holonomic constraints, Principle of least action and the derivation of Lagrange’s equations of motion. Application of Lagrange’s equations to solve simple problems.Conservation laws and symmetries in nature. Constraints and the method of Lagrange’s undetermined multipliers, Generalized force and generalised momentum.

Central force problems:

- Vector treatment of motion of a particle in three dimensions, moving frames of reference, effects of the earth’s rotation, motion under a central conservative force, the inverse square law, scattering cross-sections, motion of a charge particle in uniform and non-uniform electric and magnetic fields.

The two body problem:

- The centre of mass and relative coordinates, elastic collisions, scattering cross-sections in centre of mass and laboratory frames.

Rigid body motion:

- Rotational motion of a rigid body, moment of inertia, principal axes of inertia, gyroscopic motion.
- Small oscillations and normal modes

Hamiltonian Mechanics:

- Hamiltonian and the Hamilton’s equations of motion, simple applications, ignorable coordinates, the symmetric top, symmetries and conservation laws.

Relativity:

**Special Relativity:**

- Review of postulates of special relativity and Lorentz transformation equations, four vectors, transformation of velocity, momentum and force using four vectors, field of a moving charge via force transformation, relativistic collision and decay problems.
- Transformation of wave number vector, radial and transverse Doppler effects in optics.

General Relativity

- Non-mathematical introduction to general relativity, Einstein’s approach to gravity, black holes, concept of curved space time, experimental test of general relativity.
- Rudiments of cosmology.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

(Expected to answer four out of five questions) |

{slide=**PHY303MC3: ****Quantum Mechanics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- To introduce the necessary characteristics of quantum theory and quantum mechanics in a more formal way, introducing a set of postulates.
- To enable students to solve the Time Independent Schrödinger Equation for simple quantum mechanical problems in one, two and three dimensions.
- To introduce algebraic methods in quantum mechanics and highlight the power of the technique involving ladder operators.
- Tointroduce the method of solving central field problems in spherical polar coordinates and the concept of angular momentum in quantum mechanics.
- To introduce matrix representation of operators and wavefunctions with emphasis on spinors.
- To introduce the quantum mechanical approach to the behaviour of identical particle systems.

**Syllabus :**

**Introduction:**

- Evidence of inadequacy of classical mechanics, Some necessary characteristics of quantum theory, The wave-particle duality, the wave function and probability amplitudes, wave packets, the Schrödinger equation, eigenvalue equations and their place in the quantum formalism, Calculation of expectation values of system parameters.

Solution of Schrödinger equation in some simple cases:

- One dimensional potential well and energy quantization, potential barriers, reflection and transmission coefficients, tunnelling, one dimensional simple harmonic oscillator, symmetric potentials and parity.
- Operator formalism and the basic postulates of quantum mechanics:
- Linear Hermitian operators and observables, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, expectation values, rate of change of expectation values, degeneracy, simultaneous observability and commutation, the uncertainty principle. The basic postulates of quantum mechanics.

Application of Schrödinger equation to three dimensional problems:

- Free particle and particle confined to a box, Schrödinger equation in spherical polar coordinates and solving central field problems, Spherical Harmonics, orbital and magnetic quantum numbers.

Operators in quantum mechanics:

- The ladder operators in thelinear harmonic oscillator problem and the angular momentum.Introduction of spin as an intrinsic property of particles.

Schrödinger equation for two particle systems:

- The energy of arigid rotator, the deuteron; The energy, the energy level diagram and the wavefunctions of one-electron atoms.

Transformation of Representations in quantum mechanics:

- Matrix representation of wave functions and operators. Matrix representation of angular momentum operators, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices, Pauli spin matrices.

Total Angular momentum and addition of angular momenta:

- The vector model, spectroscopic notation, magnetic dipole moment of an electron in an atom due to its orbital and spin angular momenta, Force experienced by an electron in an atom in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Identical particles:

- The particle exchange operator, The effect of indistinguishability of atomic particles on quantum formalism, Pauli exclusion principle.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

(Expected to answer four out of five questions) |

{slide=**PHY304MC3: Advanced Electronics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives :

- To provide broad knowledge in electronics by developing an understanding of basic concepts in analogue and digital electronics.
- To understand the working principles of elements of digital computers.

**Syllabus :**

**Single stage transistor amplifier:**

- Analysis of different types of amplifiers with transistor models (h- and p- parameters) at wide range of frequencies.

Multistage transistor amplifier:

- Analysis of multistage transistor amplifiers with transistor models (h- and p- parameters) at wide range of frequencies.

Feedback circuits:

- Negative feedback circuits: voltage series, voltage shunt, current series and current shunt feedback amplifiers,Positive feedback circuits: Wein’s bridge, LC, quartz crystal, Hartley oscillators, Colpitt’s, Clapp and RC phase shift oscillators and Multivibrators: bi-stable, monostable and astablemultivibrators.

Analogue computing:

- Main characteristics of operational amplifiers, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, voltage follower, current source, voltage source, filter, analogue computing circuits to perform addition, subtraction, differentiation, integration, exponentiation and logarithms, Schmitt trigger, function generator, analogue to digital converter, digital to analogue converter.

Digital electronics:

- Logic gates, Boolean functions and operations, laws and rules of Boolean algebra, De Morgan’s theorem, Boolean expressions and truth tables, Karnaugh maps, Combinational circuits
**:**adders, substractors, comparators, decoder, encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, Parity generator / checker, Sequential Circuits: flip-flop circuits, registers, counters and 555-timer chip.

Elements of digital computing:

- Central Processing Unit (CPU), The memory: Read Only Memory (ROM), Programmable ROMs (PROMs and EPROMs), Read / Write Random Access Memories (RAMs).

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

(Expected to answer four out of five questions) |

{slide=**PHY304MC3: Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics **|closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives :

- To develop an understanding of the role played by the probability distribution function for a system in its allowed microstates and of the interpretation of entropy in terms of the information related to this probability distribution.
- To develop an understanding of the Boltzmann equation for the equilibrium probability distribution as given in terms of the microstates quantities, such as the energies, particle numbers.
- To develop an understanding of the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical formalism and relate equilibrium thermodynamic quantities to some key statistical physics parameters.
- To develop an understanding of the behaviour of important physical system by the application of equilibrium statistical mechanics.
- To apply statistical mechanics to explain simple physical phenomena such as phase equilibrium and chemical reactions.

Syllabus :

**Introduction**:

- Elementary statistics, Binomial, Gaussian and Poisson distributions.
- Basic postulates, quantum states and energy levels, micro states and macro states.

**Isolated systems**:

- Thermodynamic probability, statistical definition of temperature and entropy, the micro canonical distribution.

Closed system in contact with a heat bath:

- Boltzmann distribution and canonical partition function, applications to paramagnetic system, perfect gas, the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution, theorem of equipartition of energy.

System with variable number of particles:

- Chemical potential µ, the grand canonical distribution and the grand partition function.
- Quantum systems of non interacting identical particles, occupation number representation. Fermi – Dirac and Bose – Einstein statistics, application to black body radiation, specific heat capacity of electrons at low temperature, thermal emission of electrons, Bose-Einstein condensation.Region of validity of classical approximation.

The perfect gas in the Boltzmann limit:

- Monatomic and diatomic gases, ortho and para hydrogen.Thermodynamic equations for single phase one component systems, the Gibbs-Duhem relation, chemical reactions and the law of mass action.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

(Expected to answer four out of five questions) |

{/slides}

{tab=Level 4M}

**Level 4M Course Units**

**Core Course Units**

{slide= **PHY401MC 6:****Project and Workshop Technology**|closed|scroll}

Project:

**Objectives:**

- To develop skills in literature survey, planning and executing a project.
- To develop skills in report writing and oral presentations.

Guidelines:

- The student will be initially asked to select a suitable project of their own, after extensive search of literature and required to orally present the motivation, purpose and plan of the work. If the project plan is satisfactory, the students will be assigned a supervisor and allowed to continue. Otherwise, the students will be asked to revise the project plan in consultation with an assigned supervisor. The students are expected to maintain a log – book and consult the supervisor at least one hour per day throughout the academic year. They also have to orally present their monthly progress on their project.
- After successful completion of the project, students should submit a soft bound copy of the project report for marking. After correction and marking of the report, students should submit 3 hard bound copies of the project report. Students also have to defend and present their findings in front of a panel of examiners.

Workshop Technology:

**Objectives:**

- To create awareness of various workshop hazards.
- To familiarize the students with various workshop devices and equipment.
- To train the students on various workshop techniques.

Syllabus:

**Workshop hazards:**

- Accidents, Protection, Use and Maintenance of tools, Electrical hazards, Fire fighting, and Health hazards.

Measurements:

- Linear measurements, Measurement of angles, Dial indicator, Engineering drawing, and Geometrical constructions.

Hand Tools:

- Hammers, Screw drivers, Pliers, Spanners, Wrenches, Allen keys, Chisel, Files, Hacksaw, Scraper, Taps, dies, and Metal sheet cutting tools.

Metal Cutting:

- The wedge in metal cutting, Types of chip, Prevention of chip welding, Application of cutting angles: Chisel, File, Hacksaw, Scraper, Thread cutting, Twist drill, and Reamers.

Welding:

- Gas welding, and Arc welding.

Centre Lathe:

- Construction features, Basic alignments and Movements, and Operation of the centre lathe.

Evaluation:

**Project**

Project Report | 80% |

Oral presentation | 20% |

**Workshop Technology:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 20% |

Continuous assessment on workshop assignments | 80% |

The overall performance (percentage mark) for this course unit shall be calculated by giving a weight of **five** for **Project** and **one** for **Workshop** **Technology.**

{slide= **PHY402MC3:****Advanced Electromagnetism** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- To introduce differential form of Maxwell’s equations.
- To understand the use of Maxwell’s equations in vacuum and media.
- To understand the propagation of electromagnetic waves in dielectrics, conductors, transmission lines and wave guides.
- To understand generation and detection of electromagnetic waves.
- To learn about the relativistic effect on electromagnetic fields.

Syllabus:

**Maxwell’s Equation and Electromagnetic Waves:**

- Maxwell’s equations, Derivation of Maxwell’s equations, Energy in electromagnetic field and Pointing Vector, Electromagnetic impedance of a media, Plane waves in free space and in dielectric and conducting media, Propagation of electromagnetic waves through ionized media-the ionosphere.

Interaction of Electromagnetic waves with matter (Reflection, Refraction, Scattering and Absorption):

- Boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field vectors, Refractive index of a medium, Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at boundaries, Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by solids and liquids.

Transmission lines and Wave Guides:

- Propagation signals in loss less transmission line, Transmission line terminated by a load impedance, Practical types of transmission lines,Reflections in the transmission lines, Standing waves in the transmission lines, The input impedance of a mismatched line, Lossy lines, Propagation of waves between conducting Planes, Wave guides, rectangular wave guides, Optical fibers, Power transmission through wave guides.

Generation and Detection of Electromagnetic waves:

- Retarded potentials, Lorentz gauge, Generation of electromagnetic waves, Hertzian dipole, Radiation from moving charges, Radiation resistance of a dipole, Half wave Antenna, Full wave antenna, Detection of Infrared, Ultraviolet, X-ray and γ-radiation.

Relativistic electromagnetism:

- Maxwell’s Equations in the four vector forms, Relativistic transformation of electromagnetic fields and potentials, Electric and magnetic fields due a moving charge, Relativistic transformation of current density and Charge density, Retarded potentials from relativistic standpoint.

Evaluation:

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

{slide= **PHY403MC3: ****Advanced Solid State Physics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- To introduce the techniques used in crystallography.
- To introduce various theories relating to the different types of band structures and electronic states in solids.
- To understand the electrical, thermal, optical, magnetic and superconducting properties of solids.

Syllabus:

**Crystallograph**y:

- Review of crystal structures, crystal symmetry, symmetry operators, point groups, reciprocal lattice, Laue condition, Bragg condition, Theory of x-ray diffraction by crystals, Experimental diffraction methods- rotating crystal method, powder method, neutron diffraction.

**Electrical properties:**

- Review of free electron theory, physical origin of band gap, nearly free electron theory, Bloch theorem, reduced, periodic and extended zone schemes; concept of effective mass, construction and experimental studies of Fermi surfaces, cyclotron resonance of metals, magneto resistance.

**Semiconductors:**

- Review of the basic semiconductor theory, mobility, Resistivity and Hall effect, theory of p-n junction, heterojunctions, carrier injection, recombination at interfaces, light emitting diodes, solar cells, introduction to band structure engineering- quantum well and superlattice structures.

**Optical properties:**

**Magnetic properties:**

- Different types of magnetism in solids, classical and qauntum theories of dia and para magnetisms, Brillouin function, ferromagnetism , physical origin of ferromagnetism, Weiss exchange field, Currie – Weiss law, antiferro and ferro magnetism, magnetic domains magnons.

**Superconductivity:**

- Introduction to the superconducting state of solids, Meissner effect, types of super conductors, nature of superconducting states, Microwave and infrared properties, Flux quantization, London equation, Josephson superconductor tunneling, Superconducting quantum interference, Introduction to BCS theory.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

{slide= **PHY404MC3: Nuclear ****Physics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- To understand the properties of the forces that holds the nucleus together.
- To provide a basis of knowledge of the properties of nuclei and of models that explains these properties.
- To understand the principles involved in the nuclear decays and reactions.

Syllabus:

**Nuclear Structure:**

- A survey of nuclear properties, Nuclear size and density: Scattering of fast electrons, Electromagnetic methods, nuclear charge distribution, distribution of nuclear matter,

Nuclear forces:

- Theory of the deuteron, Low energy Neutron – Proton scattering: Spin – dependence, Effective range theory, Coherent and Incoherent scattering. Proton – Proton Scattering, Neutron – Neutron Scattering, Isotropic spin, High energy n-p, n-n, p-p scattering, Exchange force model,

Nuclear models:

- Nuclear masses and binding energies; The liquid drop model: The semi empirical formula, magic number; Shell Model: Ground state spin and parity of nuclei, Magnetic moments; Quadra pole moments, Introduction to Collective Model and Optical model.

Nuclear decays:

- Theory of nuclear decays: alpha, beta, electron capture and gamma decays, allowed and forbidden transition, nuclear stability, beta stability valley.

Nuclear reactions:

- Nuclear reactions: mechanisms, compound nucleus, kinematics and cross section, nuclear energy levels and their determination, Nuclear fission: Fission cross- section, chain reactions, control fission, moderations, thermal reactors, reactor control, fast breeder reactors, Nuclear fusion: Fusion cross- section; thermo nuclear fusion, magnetic field confinement, fusion reactors, hydrogen bomb, Fusion in stars.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

{slide= **PHY405MC3: ****Laser Physics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- To understand the basic principles of Laser action and properties of Laser medium.
- To introduce wide range of laser applications.
- To understand the fast developing areas of laser physics.

Syllabus:

**Introduction:**

- Electromagnetic radiation and its properties, Fourier transformation in diffraction theory, Black body radiation theory and Principal components of laser.

**Laser properties, classes and safety**:

- Monochromaticity, Coherence, Directionality, Brightness, Polarisation, Tunability, Laser classes and safety.

Einstein’s relationship and line broadening mechanisms:

- Interaction of matter: absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein’s coefficient and relationship, Line shape function, Natural, Collision and Doppler broadenings.

**Laser Oscillation**:

- Absorption / Gain coefficient, Population inversion, Threshold population, Laser oscillation in Fabry –Perot cavity and Properties of cavity resonator, Rate equation, Pumping power, Three- and Four-level lasers and Gain saturation.

Laser types:

- Ruby laser, Gas laser, Semiconductor laser, Quantum well laser, Dye laser and Polymer laser.

Modifying laser output:

- Laser modes, Quality factor (Q), Mode locking, Q-switching, Electro-optic effect: Kerr and Pockel effects, Magneto-optic effects: Faraday effect and Acoustic-optic effect, Non-linear effects and Harmonic generation.

**Laser Applications**:

- Laser application in Photography (Holography), Information technology, Communication, Printing, Scanning, Industry, Military, and Medical Research.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

{slide= **PHY406MC3: ****Atomic and Molecular Spectra**|closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- To introduce the approximation methods used in quantum theory.
- To describe and understand the main features of atomic spectra.
- To introduce effect of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra.
- To understand the main features of Molecular spectra and its application.

Syllabus:

**Approximation Methods:**

- Time-independent non-degenerate perturbation theory, Time-independent degenerate perturbation theory, The variational method, Time-dependent perturbation theory and the interaction of atoms with radiation..

Atomic Spectra:

- The spectra of Atomic hydrogen: Fine structure, Hyperfine structure; The spectra of Alkali metal atoms: Quantum defects, fine structure in alkali metal atoms; The spectrum of Helium: singlet and triplet states, exchange force; Many electron Atoms: Central field approximation, Atomic configuration and periodic table of elements, Coupling schemes.
- The interaction of atomic systems with external electric fields: the stark effect; The interaction of atomic systems with external magnetic fields: Landau levels, the strong field Zeeman effect, the Paschen-Back effect, Anomalous Zeeman effect; Broadening of Spectral lines: Broadening, due to local and non-local effects.

Molecular Spectra:

- Microwave Spectroscopy: The rotation of Molecules, Rotational spectra, Diatomic molecules, Polyatomic molecules, Techniques and Instrumentations; Infra-red spectroscopy: The vibrating diatomic molecules, the diatomic vibrating-rotator, the vibration of polyatomic molecules, the influence of rotation on the spectra of polyatomic molecules, Analysis by infra-red techniques, Techniques and Instrumentations; Raman Spectroscopy: Pure rotational Raman spectra, Vibrational Raman spectra, Polarizationof light and the Raman effect, Structure determination from Raman and Infra-red spectroscopy, Techniques and Instrumentations; Electronic spectra of molecules: Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, Electronic structure of diatomic molecules, Electronic spectra of polyatomic molecules, Techniques and Instrumentations; Spin resonance spectroscopy: Spin and applied field, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, Techniques and Instrumentations.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

{slide= **PHY407MC3:****Particle Physics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- To understand the physics of experimental techniques used in the production of high energy particles and their detection.
- To understand the physics of fundamental constituents of matter.
- To understand the properties, types of interaction and production of elementary particles.
- To study the success of standard model in explaining the particle phenomenon.

Syllabus:

**Introduction:**

- The old “elementary” particles, particle accelerators and detectors, particles and anti particles, pion, muon, neutrinos, strange particles; Classification of particles: baryons, mesons and leptons, quark model; Different types of interaction: strong, electro magnetic and weak; Mediators, the standard model.

Conservation laws:

- Energy and momentum, angular momentum, Isospin, strangeness, parity, charge conjugation, time reversal and CPT theorem.

**Electromagnetic interaction:**

- General features, exchange particle, coupling constant, cross section;
- Feynman diagram: First order, second order and third order processes, conservation of strangeness, non-conservation of isospin, electromagnetic interaction of hadrons.

Hadrons:

- The baryon decuplet and oclet, meson oclet, baryon mass and magnetic moment, mass of light mesons, positronium, quarkonium,
**psi**and**epsilon**mesons,**OZI**rule.

Weak interaction:

- parity violation, helicity of neutrino and antineutrino, decay of charged pions, muons and strange particles, W and Z bosons, Feynman diagram representation of leptonic, semileptonic and non-leptonic decay processes, decay of neutral kaon, strangeness oscillation, regeneration, CP violation.

Strong interaction:

- cross-section and decay rates, isospin in the two nucleon system and pion-nucleon system, baryon resonance.

Quark- quark interaction:

- The parton model, neutrino-nucleon collision and electron-positron annihilation cross-section, deep inelastic electron-nucleon, neutrino-nucleon scattering, electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, the quark-quark interaction and potential, quark confinement, Feynman diagram representation of hadronic processes.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of three hours duration | 70% |

{/slides}

**Elective Course Units**

{slide= **PHY421ME3: Instrumentation and characterization** |closed|scroll}

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials and 15 practical sessions)

**Objectives:**

- To introduce principle of instrumentation.
- To introduce measurement theories.
- To impart understanding of characterization methods.

**Syllabus:**

**Instrumentation:**

**Interfacing: **

- Data acquisition (DAQ) systems, The GPIB characteristics, Instrument drivers, other bus types (Serial, USB).

**Lab VIEW programming: **

- Lab VIEW basics; the labVIEW environment, Panel and Diagram windows, Palettes; Virtual Instruments (VI); SubVI; Structures; the for loop, the while loop, Shift register and feedback nodes, Case structure, Flat and stacked sequence structures, the formula node; Arrays and Clusters; Charts and Graphs; Data acquisition: Components of a DAQ system, Types of signals, Common transducer and signal conditioning, Signal grounding and measurements, DAQ VI organization, DAQ hardware configuration, Using DAQ assistant; Instruments control: components of instrument control system, Detecting and configuring instruments, Using the Instrument I/O assistant, Instrument drivers.

**Characterisation:**

**Structural characterisation:**

- X-ray diffraction, Scanning Probe microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy.

**Electrical characterisation:**

- The four probe method, Resistivity profiling, Current-voltage, Capacitance – voltage, Hall effect, Deep level transient spectroscopy, Time of flight , Kelvin probe,

**Optical characterisation:**I

- nfrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, transient absorption spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy, Ellipsometry.

**Thermal characterisation:**

- Peltier effect, Seebeck effect, Thermo-gravimetric analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermo mechanical analyzer.

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

Practical Examination | 20% |

End of course written examination of two hours duration | 50% |

{slide= **PHY422ME3:****Nanotechnology and Nanoscience** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- To introduce the fundamental physical laws governing the operation of nanomaterials.
- To introduce growth and fabrication of nanomaterials and devices.
- To introduce new phenomena emerging in nanoscopic regimes.
- To introduce technological application of nanomaterials.
- To master the biological applications of nanotechnology and understand the physics of these applications.

Syllabus:

**Physics of Low dimension:**

**Thin film Growth techniques**:

- Theory of film growth, Spin coating, Langmuir-Blodgett film deposition, Electrodeposition, Self assembly, Chemical bath deposition, Spray pyrolyis, Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition, Atomic layer deposition.

**Nanofabrication:**

- Lithography and pattern transfer, Etching, Ion implantation, Metallisation, dielectric deposition etc., Passivation.

** **

**Nanocharacterisation:**

- Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy etc.

** **

**Nanostructures:**

- Heterostructures,Quantum wells, Multi Quantum Wells, Superlattices, Quantum wires, Quantum dots, Carbon nanotubes etc.

** **

**Nanodevices:**

- Quantum cascade lasers, Single electron transistors, Solar cells, Molecular diodes, Nanotude transistors, Nanowire Lasers etc.

** **

**Bionanotechnology:**

- Cell biology, Low dimensional Fluid flow, Electrophoresis, Bio chips and arrays, DNA computers, Bio sensors and detection methods.

** **

**Nanomedicine:**

- Application of nanotechnology in medicine: X ray medical imaging with nanoparticles, nanoparticle therapeutics, nanorobotics surgery.

** **

**Evaluation:**

Two to three in-course assessment tests | 30% |

End of course written examination of two hours duration | 70% |

{slide= **PHY423ME3:****Energy Physics** |closed|scroll}

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives** :

- To understand the nature of various type of available energy resources.
- To introduce the physics of energy generation from various types energy resources.
- To familiarise with the energy conversion technology and energy applications.

Syllabus**:**

**Introduction:**

- Different kind of energy sources; renewable energy sources and non renewable energy sources, effect of energy on the world socioeconomics and politics. Conservation of energy and momentum , energy flow; streamline, turbulence and pipe flow, heat transfer processes; conduction, convection and radiation , properties of transparent materials, heat transfer by mass transport and multimode transfer of heat.

**Solar energy**:

- Solar radiation, Effect of earth atmosphere on solar radiation, solar collectors, measurement of solar radiation, Estimation of solar radiation, Solar water heating, unsheltered heaters, sheltered heaters, system with separate storage, selective surfaces, evacuated collectors, other uses of solar heaters; air heaters, crop driers, space heat, space cooling, water desalination, solar ponds, Solar concentrators; photovoltaic generation, solar cells, other types of photoelectric and thermoelectric generation, Photosynthetic process, photophysics.

**Hydro power** :

- Principles, assessing the resource for small installations, turbines, hydroelectric systems, hydraulic ram pump.

**Wind power** :

- Turbine types and terms, Basic theory, Dynamic matching, stream tube theory, Characteristics of the wind , power extraction by a turbine, electrical and mechanical power generation.

**Biofuels** :

- Bio fuel classification, Biomass production for energy farming, direct combustion for heat, pyrolysis, thermo chemical processes; Alcoholic fermentation, anaerobic digestion for biogas, agrochemical fuel extraction.

**Wave Energy** :

- Wave motion, wave energy and power, wave patterns and power extraction devices.

**Tidal power** :

- Cause of tides, Enhancement of tides, tidal flow power and tidal range power.

Geo thermal energy

- Origin of geothermal energy, dry rock and hot aquifer analysis, harnessing geothermal resources.

Nuclear energy :

- Nuclear fuel, Fusion and fission processes, nuclear reactors, reactor types, reactor design,nuclear radiation pollution and health effects.

**Fossil Fuel energy** :

- Fossil fuel process, oil, natural gasses and coal.

Energy storage and distribution :

- Importance of energy storage, Biological storage, chemical storage, heat storage, electrical storage, fuel cells, mechanical storage and distribution of energy.

**Evaluation :**

In-course assessment tests | 15% |

Seminar | 15% |

End of course written examination of two hours duration | 70% |

(Expected to answer three out of four questions) |

{/slides}

{tab=Level 4X}

**Level 4X Course Units**

**Common course units** (amounting to 08 credits)

{slide= **APS401XM2: Industrial Management**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Appraise the well–known theories and perspectives on industrial management
- Elaborate dynamics of change management and systems
- Recall quality management standards

Syllabus:

- Management Concepts and Industrial Organization: Managing and the environment, Growth, Technology and Innovation, contemporary issues in industrial management(Change and Innovation Management), Historical perspectives of industrial management, organizational structures & Design, Design of work place and layouts.
- Industrial System Analysis: The manufacturing system, Productivity, Work–Method study, Introduction to Ergonomics, Risk factors and Modifiers of Ergonomics, Material Handling and lifting, Hand tools, The human /machine relationship, industrial safety.
- Project Management and Resource Allocation: Work break down structure, project financing, Network scheduling, project crashing, resource allocation.
- Managing Quality: Background of Total Quality Management, Bench Marking, Quality Function Deployment, Quality circles and Task teams, Promoting continuous Improvement, Quality Measurement Kaizen, Five S (5S), Six sigma Quality Management Standards (Introductory aspects only)–The ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System Standard– The ISO 14001:2004, Environmental Management System Standard–ISO 27001:2005
- Management Information Systems(MIS): Introduction to information systems and their requirements, Information systems methodologies.

Evaluation:

In–course Assessments | 30% |

End–of–course Examination | 70% |

Recommended Readings:

- P. Khanna, Industrial Engineering and Management, Dhanpatrai Publications Ltd, New Delhi, 2012.
- Dennis W. Carlton and Jeffrey M. Perloff, Modern Industrial Organization, UK, 2004.
- V.S.Bagad, Industrial Management. Technical Publications, 2009.
- Henri Fayol, Industrial management. Pitman Publications, 2012.

## {slide= **APS402XM2: Introduction to Human Resource Management**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)** **

Objectives:

- Justify the importance of human resource management
- Interpret how legislation impacts human resource management practice
- Compare and contrast methods used for selection and placement of human resources.
- Elaborate the steps required to develop and evaluate an employee training program
- Summarize the activities involved in evaluating and managing employee performance

Syllabus:

- Evolution of Human Management, Definitions of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management and Personnel Management Approaches, Equal Employment opportunity and Laws, Managing Diversity, Human Resource Audit, Human Resource information system, Job Analysis, Human Resource Planning, Recruitment and selection, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal.

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

Recommended Readings:

- Gary Dessler, Introduction to Human Resource Management, 13th edition, Pearson Publications, 2013.
- Joan E. Pynes, Human Resources Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A strategic approach, 4th edition, Wiley, 2013.

{slide= **APS403XM2:****Database Management**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Experience hands-on introduction to databases
- Justify database handling for research and applications
- Solve research problems using scientific databases effectively
- Appraise open source database management system packages

Syllabus:

- Data Modeling: conceptual modeling (ER, UML), relational modelling, metadata, ontologies.
- Structured Query Language (SQL): Simple queries, Nested queries, aggregation.
- Scientific Workflows and Scripting: Principles of scientific workflows and systems, Workflow scripting in Python.

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

Recommended Readings:

- Database Systems: A Practical Approach to Design, Implementation, and Management, 6/E, Thomas Connolly, Carolyn Begg, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 2014.
- Database Management Systems, 3/E, Raghu Ramakrishnan,JohannesGehrke, McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2002.
- Modern Database Management, 11/E, Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Ramesh Venkataraman, HeikkiTopi, Prentice Hall Publishers, 2012.

{slide= **APS405XM2: Entrepreneurship**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- Appraise the importance of entrepreneurship
- Perceive the profile of entrepreneurs
- Propose a work plan for starting a new venture

Syllabus:

- Introduction to Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Entrepreneurial Mindset, Motivations, and Behaviours, Industry Understanding, Customer UnderstandingBusiness Modelling, Business Planning, Introduction to Entrepreneurship Law and Intellectual Property.

Evaluation:

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

Recommended Readings:

- Essentials of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, 7/E, Norman M. Scarborough, Prentice Hall Publishers, 2014.
- Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures, 4/E, Bruce R. Barringer, Duane Ireland, Prentice Hall Publishers, 2012.
- Entrepreneurship for Scientists and Engineers, Kathleen Allen, Prentice Hall Publishers, 2010.

**{/slides}**

**Core course units (Amounting 20 credits):**

{slide= **PHY401XS3: Introduction to Physics of Industrial Materials**|closed|scroll}

(45 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the properties of industrial materials
- Classify materials based on dimension
- Propose applications of nano materials

**Syllabus:**

- History of materials, types of materials, brief introduction and applications of semiconducting materials, magnetic and superconducting materials, biomaterials and nano-materials, competition among the materials, future trends in materials usage, structure and properties of materials, introduction to phase transformations and phase diagrams, fabrication, experimental techniques in material characterization (including nano-materials) and selection of materials for various industrial applications.
- Nano-structured materials, underlying physics of nano-particles, classification of materials based on dimensions: zero-dimensional (nano-sized powders), one-dimensional (filamentary rods of nano-scaled thickness), two-dimensional (nano-crystalline multilayers) and three-dimensional (bulk materials with at least one nano-crystalline phase).
- Fullerenes, graphene, nano-tubes, nano-fibers and wires, nano-composites, nano-porous materials, fabrication of nano-materials and challenges involved, applications of nano-materials, introduction to nanofabrication and safe handling of nano-materials.

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Mittemeijer, Eric J., Fundamentals of Materials Science, Springer, 2011.
- Joel I. Gersten, Frederick W. Smith, The Physics and Chemistry of Materials, Wiley-Interscience, 2001.

{slide= **PHY402XS2: Ceramics and their Industrial Applications**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- Explain the properties of ceramics
- Compare different varieties of ceramics
- Discuss the applications of ceramic coatingsand glasses

**Syllabus:**

- Concepts of material science, definition and scope of ceramic materials, classification of ceramic materials – conventional and advanced, areas of applications.
- Ionic bonding, lattice energy, covalent bonding, defects in solids, properties of interfaces and grain boundaries, melting point, thermal expansion, Young’s Modulus and strength of perfect solids, grain size, grain boundaries and surfaces.
- Classification of refractories, modern trends and developments, raw materials: Selection and composition, elementary ideas of manufacturing process technology, flow diagram of steps required for manufacturing, powder characterization, green compact production, sintering and densification, different types of furnaces/kilns, usage of phase diagrams in synthesis and sintering.
- Ceramic Coatings: Types of glazes and enamels, basic ideas on compositions, process of enameling, glazing and their properties.
- Glasses: Definition of glass, basic concepts of glass structure, minor ingredients and their functions, glass manufacturing processes, different types and applications of glasses.
- Cement and Concrete: Concepts of hydraulic materials, basic raw materials, manufacturing processes, basic composition of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), compound formation, setting and hardening tests of cement and concrete.

** **

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

Recommended Readings:

- M. Bengisu, Engineering Ceramics, Springer, 2001.
- Yoshihiko Imanaka (Editor), Advanced Ceramic Technologies & Products, Springer, 2012.

**PHY403XS2: Polymers and their Industrial Applications**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- Explain the structural properties of polymers
- Compare different moulding techniques
- Summarise electrical and electronic properties of polymers

** **

**Syllabus:**

- Introduction to Polymers: Monomers, polymers, types of polymers, polymerization and average molar masses, poly-dispersity, glass transition temperature and factors affecting the glass transition temperature
- Structural Properties of Polymers: Radius of gyration, volume fraction of a polymer chain, viscosity of dilute polymer solution (the Zimm Theory) and molten polymer (the Rouse theory), diffusion in the molten polymers, elastic properties of rubber, effect of temperature on elastic modulus, fibre-polymer composites, processing technologies of polymer articles (moulding, forming, lamination, reinforcement and coating), advantages and disadvantages of different moulding techniques.
- Electrical and Electronic Properties of Polymers: History, conjugation, pi and sigma bonds, electronic structure of polymeric solids, molecular orbits, ionization potentials, electron affinity, oxidative and reductive doping, different doping methods, optical absorption and emission of polymers, basic operation of polymer solar cells and light emitting diodes, potential applications of conjugated polymers, advantages and disadvantages of conjugated polymers.

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Michael M. Coleman, Paul C. Painter, Fundamentals of Polymer Science: An Introductory Text, CRC Press LLC, 1998.
- Paul C. Painter, Michael M. Coleman, Essentials of Polymer Science and Engineering, DEStech Publications, Inc., 2008.

**PHY404XS2: Laboratory Based Workshop Practice**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- Design simple tools needed for industries
- Recall different cutting and welding techniques
- Adapt health and safety in workshop practice

Syllabus:

- Measurements: Linear measurements, measurement of angles, dial indicator, engineering drawing and geometrical constructions
- Tools: Hand Tools – Hammers, screw drivers, pliers, spanners, wrenches, allen keys, chisels, files, hacksaws, scrapers, taps, dies and metal sheet cutting tools; Machining and polishing (Lathe and Milling), various types of moulding and casting techniques, installation and maintenance of machineries, twist drill and reamers
- Cutting: The wedge in metal cutting, types of chips, prevention of chip welding, application of cutting angles (chisel, file, hacksaw, scraper and thread cutting)
- Welding: Introduction to gas and arc welding, spot and seam welding, soldering
- Centre Lathe: Construction features, basic alignments, movements and the operation of the centre lathe
- Health and Safety: Accidents, protection, usage and maintenance of tools, electrical hazards, fire-fighting and health hazards

Evaluation:

Theory : Two in-course Assessment(s) |
20% |

Practical: Continuous assessment reports |
40% |

Assignment(s) of design work | 40% |

**PHY405XS3: Laboratory/Project Work in Industrial Materials**|closed|scroll}

(90-120 hours of laboratory work)

Objectives:

- Identify a research problem on industrial materials and frame a research question
- Conduct a literature survey on identified problem
- Develop operational skills of modern equipment
- Apply data analysis and programming skills
- Improve scientific writing skills

** **

**Course Description:**

- Laboratory work: Experiments for the analysis of various industrial materials including polymers, ceramics, glasses, metals and semiconducting materials. On completion of the laboratory work a report should be submitted and a presentation should be made.
- Project work: A project on a selected topic in Materials Physics shall be carried out under the supervision of academic staff. Students are expected to carry out a literature survey and present the project proposal prior to the commencement of the project. On completion of the project a report should be submitted and a presentation should be made.

**Evaluation:**

Design of experiments/project implementation | 30% |

Oral presentation | 30% |

Project report | 40% |

Obtaining a minimum of Grade C in final report is a requisite to qualify a pass.

{slide= **PHY406XS8: Industrial Training**|closed|scroll}

(4-6 months of industrial training)

Objectives:

- Apply acquired knowledge in industrial environment
- Develop interpersonal,management and team working skills
- Adapt to work readily in real industrial projects
- Perceive state-of-the-art industrial technologies

Course Description:

- Students will be trained in an industry, probably in an industry which produces industrial materials, for a period of 4–6 months under the guidance of academic and industrial supervisors. On completion of the industrial training, each student should submit a report and deliver an oral presentation.

** **

**Evaluation:**

Training journal | 20% |

Evaluation report from the industrial supervisor | 20% |

Presentation | 20% |

Final Report | 40% |

**Obtaining a minimum of Grade C in final report is a requisite to qualify a pass.**

**{/slides}**

**Elective course unit (amounting to 2 credits):**

{slide= **PHY421XE2: Minerals for Advanced Applications**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

** **

**Objectives: **

- Survey of Sri Lankan mineral resources
- Discuss the physical properties of minerals
- Propose different applications of minerals

Syllabus:

- Mineral resources of Sri Lanka (Graphite, Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon, Quartz, Feldspar, Clay, Kaolin, Apatite (Phosphate Rock), Silica Sand, Garnet Sand, Mica, Calcite and Dolomite).
- Study in hand specimens of the following rocks: Granite, Basalt, Pegmatite, Sandstone, Limestone, Schist, Gneiss, Dolomite and Coal.
- Physical properties (specific strength or stiffness, high temperature performance, high tolerance geometrical stability, optical and electrical properties) of the following minerals: Quartz, Feldspar (Potash and Plagioclase), Pyroxene, Calcite, Magnesite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Gypsum, Magnetite, Haematite, Galena, Biotite, Muscovite, Garnet, Chromite and Bauxite.
- Occurrence of mineral deposits; their present uses and future potential (TiO2, Fe, FeO, SiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, V2O5, Cr2O3 and P2O5).
- Value addition to the minerals, some other applications (food packaging, environment remediation, drug delivery and fire retardant).

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

Recommended Readings:

- Maurice C. Fuerstenau, Kenneth N. Han(Editors), Principles of Mineral Processing, Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, 2003.
- David Price G., Mineral Physics, Elsevier, 2009.

{slide= **PHY422XE2: Semiconductor Processing Technology**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Outline the basics of semiconductors
- Discuss varieties of semiconductor processing
- Explain semiconductor characterization techniques

Syllabus:

- Introduction to semiconductors, silicon technology, Moore’s law, future challenges in integrated-circuit technology, lithography techniques, mask designing, photo-resist processing, etching techniques, thin film deposition techniques, oxidation, surface passivation, dopant diffusion, ion-implantation, interconnects, introduction to vacuum technology, surface characterizations, electrical characterization techniques, optical characterization techniques, semiconductor modelling and simulation, p-n junctions, solar cells, light emitting diodes (LED) and thin film transistors (TFT).

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Michael Quirk, Julian Serda, Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Prentice Hall, 2000.
- Hong Xiao, Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition, SPIE Press, 2012.

{slide= **PHY423XE2: Energy Management in Industries**|closed|scroll}

(30 Hours of lectures and tutorials)

Objectives:

- Classify renewable energy sources
- Discuss environmental impact of energy usage
- Plan energy storage and distribution

**Syllabus:**

- Different types of energies (Electrical- hydro and thermal, Fossil fuels, Biogas, Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Nuclear and Ocean energy), their advantages and problems, environmental impact of energy usage, pollutions (noise and thermal) connected with energy conversion, conservation and optimization of energy, energy auditing and energy balance calculations.
- Energy storage and distribution: Importance of energy storage, biological storage, chemical storage, heat storage, electrical storage, fuel cells, mechanical storage and distribution of energy.

**Evaluation:**

In-course Assessments | 30% |

End-of-course Examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Barney L. Capehart, Wayne C. Turner, William J. Kennedy, Guide to Energy Management, Fairmont Press, 2011.
- Giovanni Petrecca, Energy Conversion and Management – Principles and Applications, Springer, 2014.

{/tabs}