Core Course Units

PHY401MC 6:Project and Workshop Technology



  • To develop skills in literature survey, planning and executing a project.
  • To develop skills in report writing and oral presentations.


  • The student will be initially asked to select a suitable project of their own, after extensive search of literature and required to orally present the motivation, purpose and plan of the work. If the project plan is satisfactory, the students will be assigned a supervisor and allowed to continue. Otherwise, the students will be asked to revise the project plan in consultation with an assigned supervisor. The students are expected to maintain a log – book and consult the supervisor at least one hour per day throughout the academic year. They also have to orally present their monthly progress on their project.
  • After successful completion of the project, students should submit a soft bound copy of the project report for marking. After correction and marking of the report, students should submit 3 hard bound copies of the project report. Students also have to defend and present their findings in front of a panel of examiners.

Workshop Technology:


  • To create awareness of various workshop hazards.
  • To familiarize the students with various workshop devices and equipment.
  • To train the students on various workshop techniques.


Workshop hazards:

  • Accidents, Protection, Use and Maintenance of tools, Electrical hazards, Fire fighting, and Health hazards.


  • Linear measurements, Measurement of angles, Dial indicator, Engineering drawing, and Geometrical constructions.

Hand Tools:

  • Hammers, Screw drivers, Pliers, Spanners, Wrenches, Allen keys, Chisel, Files, Hacksaw, Scraper, Taps, dies, and Metal sheet cutting tools.

Metal Cutting:

  • The wedge in metal cutting, Types of chip, Prevention of chip welding, Application of cutting angles: Chisel, File, Hacksaw, Scraper, Thread cutting, Twist drill, and Reamers.


  • Gas welding, and Arc welding.

Centre Lathe:

  • Construction features, Basic alignments and Movements, and Operation of the centre lathe.



Project Report                                                    80%
Oral presentation  20%


Workshop Technology: 

Two to three in-course assessment tests   20%
Continuous assessment on workshop assignments  80%

The overall performance (percentage mark) for this course unit shall be calculated by giving a weight of five for Project and one for Workshop Technology.

PHY402MC3:Advanced Electromagnetism

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To introduce differential form of Maxwell’s equations.
  • To understand the use of Maxwell’s equations in vacuum and media.
  • To understand the propagation of electromagnetic waves in dielectrics, conductors, transmission lines and wave guides.
  • To understand generation and detection of electromagnetic waves.
  • To learn about the relativistic effect on electromagnetic fields.


Maxwell’s Equation and Electromagnetic Waves:

  • Maxwell’s equations, Derivation of Maxwell’s equations, Energy in electromagnetic field and Pointing Vector, Electromagnetic impedance of a media,  Plane waves in free space and in dielectric and conducting media, Propagation of electromagnetic waves through ionized media-the ionosphere.

Interaction of Electromagnetic waves with matter (Reflection, Refraction, Scattering and Absorption):

  • Boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field vectors, Refractive index of a medium, Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves at boundaries, Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by solids and liquids.

Transmission lines and Wave Guides:

  • Propagation signals in loss less transmission line, Transmission line terminated by a load impedance, Practical types of transmission lines,Reflections in the transmission lines, Standing waves in the transmission lines, The input impedance of a mismatched line, Lossy lines, Propagation of waves between conducting Planes, Wave guides, rectangular wave guides, Optical fibers, Power transmission through wave guides.

Generation and Detection of Electromagnetic waves:

  • Retarded potentials, Lorentz gauge, Generation of electromagnetic waves, Hertzian dipole, Radiation from moving charges, Radiation resistance of a dipole, Half wave Antenna, Full wave antenna, Detection of Infrared, Ultraviolet, X-ray and γ-radiation.

Relativistic electromagnetism:

  • Maxwell’s Equations in the four vector forms, Relativistic transformation of electromagnetic fields and potentials, Electric and magnetic fields due a moving charge, Relativistic transformation of current density and Charge density, Retarded potentials from relativistic standpoint.


Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%


PHY403MC3: Advanced Solid State Physics

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To introduce the techniques used in crystallography.
  • To introduce various theories relating to the different types of band structures and electronic states in solids.
  • To understand the electrical, thermal, optical, magnetic and superconducting properties of solids.



  • Review of crystal structures, crystal symmetry, symmetry operators, point groups, reciprocal lattice, Laue condition, Bragg condition, Theory of x-ray diffraction by crystals, Experimental diffraction methods- rotating crystal method, powder method, neutron diffraction.


Electrical properties:

  • Review of free electron theory, physical origin of band gap, nearly free electron theory, Bloch theorem, reduced, periodic and extended zone schemes; concept of effective mass, construction and experimental studies of Fermi surfaces, cyclotron resonance of metals, magneto resistance.



  • Review of the basic semiconductor theory, mobility, Resistivity and Hall effect, theory of p-n junction,  heterojunctions, carrier injection, recombination at interfaces, light emitting diodes, solar cells, introduction to band structure engineering- quantum well and superlattice structures.


Optical properties:

  •  Macroscopic electric field and local electric field at an atom, dielectric constant and polarizability, concept of excitation, optical absorption and photoluminescence, determination of defect levels, Raman and Brillouin scattering.


Magnetic properties:

  • Different types of magnetism in solids, classical and qauntum theories of dia and para magnetisms, Brillouin function, ferromagnetism , physical origin of ferromagnetism, Weiss exchange field, Currie – Weiss law, antiferro and ferro magnetism, magnetic domains magnons.



  • Introduction to the superconducting state of solids, Meissner effect, types of super conductors, nature of superconducting states, Microwave and infrared properties, Flux quantization, London equation, Josephson superconductor tunneling,  Superconducting quantum interference,  Introduction to BCS theory.



Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%

PHY404MC3: Nuclear Physics

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To understand the properties of the forces that holds the nucleus together.
  • To provide a basis of knowledge of the properties of nuclei and of models that explains these properties.
  • To understand the principles involved in the nuclear decays and reactions. 


Nuclear Structure:

  • A survey of nuclear properties, Nuclear size and density: Scattering of fast electrons, Electromagnetic methods, nuclear charge distribution, distribution of nuclear matter,

Nuclear forces:

  • Theory of the deuteron, Low energy Neutron – Proton scattering: Spin – dependence, Effective range theory, Coherent and Incoherent scattering. Proton – Proton Scattering, Neutron – Neutron Scattering, Isotropic spin, High energy n-p, n-n, p-p scattering, Exchange force model,

Nuclear models:

  • Nuclear masses and binding energies; The liquid drop model: The semi empirical formula, magic number; Shell Model: Ground state spin and parity of nuclei, Magnetic moments; Quadra pole moments, Introduction to Collective Model and Optical model.

Nuclear decays:

  • Theory of nuclear decays: alpha, beta, electron capture and gamma decays, allowed and forbidden transition, nuclear stability, beta stability valley.

Nuclear reactions:

  • Nuclear reactions: mechanisms, compound nucleus, kinematics and cross section, nuclear energy levels and their determination, Nuclear fission: Fission cross- section, chain reactions, control fission, moderations, thermal reactors, reactor control, fast breeder reactors, Nuclear fusion: Fusion cross- section; thermo nuclear fusion, magnetic field confinement, fusion reactors, hydrogen bomb, Fusion in stars.



Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%

PHY405MC3: Laser Physics

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To understand the basic principles of Laser action and properties of Laser medium.
  • To introduce wide range of laser applications.
  • To understand the fast developing areas of laser physics.



  • Electromagnetic radiation and its properties, Fourier transformation in diffraction theory, Black body radiation theory and Principal components of laser.

Laser properties, classes and safety

  • Monochromaticity, Coherence, Directionality, Brightness, Polarisation, Tunability, Laser classes and safety.

Einstein’s relationship and line broadening mechanisms:

  • Interaction of matter: absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission, Einstein’s coefficient and relationship, Line shape function, Natural, Collision and Doppler broadenings.

Laser Oscillation

  • Absorption / Gain coefficient, Population inversion, Threshold population, Laser oscillation in Fabry –Perot cavity and Properties of cavity resonator, Rate equation, Pumping power, Three- and Four-level lasers and Gain saturation.

Laser types:

  • Ruby laser, Gas laser, Semiconductor laser, Quantum well laser, Dye laser and Polymer laser.

Modifying laser output:

  • Laser modes, Quality factor (Q), Mode locking, Q-switching, Electro-optic effect:  Kerr and Pockel effects, Magneto-optic effects: Faraday effect and Acoustic-optic effect, Non-linear effects and Harmonic generation.

Laser Applications

  • Laser application in Photography (Holography), Information technology, Communication, Printing, Scanning, Industry, Military, and Medical Research.


Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%

PHY406MC3: Atomic and Molecular Spectra

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To introduce the approximation methods used in quantum theory.
  • To describe and understand the main features of atomic spectra.
  • To introduce effect of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra.
  • To understand the main features of Molecular spectra and its application.


Approximation Methods:

  • Time-independent non-degenerate perturbation theory, Time-independent degenerate perturbation theory, The variational method, Time-dependent perturbation theory and the interaction of atoms with radiation..

Atomic Spectra:

  • The spectra of Atomic hydrogen: Fine structure, Hyperfine structure; The spectra of Alkali metal atoms: Quantum defects, fine structure in alkali metal atoms; The spectrum of Helium: singlet and triplet states, exchange force; Many electron Atoms: Central field approximation, Atomic configuration and periodic table of elements, Coupling schemes.
  • The interaction of atomic systems with external electric fields: the stark effect; The interaction of atomic systems with external magnetic fields: Landau levels, the strong field Zeeman effect, the Paschen-Back effect, Anomalous Zeeman effect; Broadening of Spectral lines: Broadening, due to local and non-local effects.

Molecular Spectra:

  • Microwave Spectroscopy: The rotation of Molecules, Rotational spectra, Diatomic molecules, Polyatomic molecules, Techniques and Instrumentations; Infra-red spectroscopy: The vibrating diatomic molecules, the diatomic vibrating-rotator, the vibration of polyatomic molecules, the influence of rotation on the spectra of polyatomic molecules, Analysis by infra-red techniques, Techniques and Instrumentations; Raman Spectroscopy: Pure rotational Raman spectra, Vibrational Raman spectra, Polarizationof light and the Raman effect, Structure determination from Raman and Infra-red spectroscopy, Techniques and Instrumentations; Electronic spectra of molecules: Electronic spectra of diatomic molecules, Electronic structure of diatomic molecules, Electronic spectra of polyatomic molecules, Techniques and Instrumentations; Spin resonance spectroscopy: Spin and applied field, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, Techniques and Instrumentations.


Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%

PHY407MC3:Particle Physics

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To understand the physics of experimental techniques used in the production of high energy particles and their detection.
  • To understand the physics of fundamental constituents of matter.
  • To understand the properties, types of interaction and production of elementary particles.
  • To study the success of standard model in explaining the particle phenomenon.



  • The old “elementary” particles, particle accelerators and detectors, particles and anti particles, pion, muon, neutrinos, strange particles; Classification of particles: baryons, mesons and leptons, quark model; Different types of interaction: strong, electro magnetic and weak; Mediators, the standard model.

Conservation laws:

  • Energy and momentum, angular momentum, Isospin, strangeness, parity, charge conjugation, time reversal and CPT theorem.


Electromagnetic interaction:

  • General features, exchange particle, coupling constant, cross section;
  • Feynman diagram: First order, second order and third order processes, conservation of strangeness, non-conservation of isospin, electromagnetic interaction of hadrons.


  • The baryon decuplet and oclet, meson oclet, baryon mass and magnetic moment, mass of light mesons, positronium, quarkonium,psi and epsilon mesons, OZI rule.

Weak interaction:

  • parity violation, helicity of neutrino and antineutrino, decay of charged pions, muons and strange particles, W and Z bosons, Feynman  diagram representation of leptonic, semileptonic and non-leptonic decay processes, decay of neutral kaon, strangeness oscillation, regeneration, CP violation.

Strong interaction:

  • cross-section and decay rates, isospin in the two nucleon system and pion-nucleon system, baryon resonance.

Quark- quark interaction:

  • The parton model, neutrino-nucleon collision and electron-positron annihilation cross-section, deep inelastic electron-nucleon, neutrino-nucleon scattering, electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, the quark-quark interaction and potential, quark confinement, Feynman  diagram representation of hadronic processes.



Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of three hours duration 70%


Elective Course Units

PHY421ME3: Instrumentation and characterization

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials and 15 practical sessions)



  • To introduce principle of instrumentation.
  • To introduce measurement theories.
  • To impart understanding of characterization methods.




  • Data acquisition (DAQ) systems, The GPIB characteristics, Instrument drivers, other bus types (Serial, USB).


Lab VIEW programming: 

  • Lab VIEW basics; the labVIEW environment, Panel and Diagram windows, Palettes; Virtual Instruments (VI); SubVI;  Structures; the for loop, the while loop, Shift register and feedback nodes, Case structure, Flat and stacked sequence structures, the formula node; Arrays and Clusters; Charts and Graphs; Data acquisition: Components of a DAQ system, Types of signals, Common transducer and signal conditioning, Signal grounding and measurements, DAQ VI organization, DAQ hardware configuration, Using DAQ assistant; Instruments control: components of instrument control system, Detecting and configuring instruments, Using the Instrument I/O assistant, Instrument drivers.



Structural characterisation:

  • X-ray diffraction, Scanning Probe microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy.


Electrical characterisation:

  • The four probe method, Resistivity profiling, Current-voltage, Capacitance – voltage, Hall effect, Deep level transient spectroscopy, Time of flight , Kelvin probe, 


Optical characterisation:I

  • nfrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, transient absorption spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectroscopy, Ellipsometry.


Thermal characterisation:

  • Peltier effect, Seebeck effect, Thermo-gravimetric analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermo mechanical analyzer.



Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
Practical Examination 20%
End of course written examination of two hours duration 50%


PHY422ME3:Nanotechnology and Nanoscience

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


  • To introduce the fundamental physical laws governing the operation of nanomaterials.
  • To introduce growth and fabrication of nanomaterials and devices.
  • To introduce new phenomena emerging in nanoscopic regimes.
  • To introduce technological application of nanomaterials.
  • To master the biological applications of nanotechnology and understand the physics of these applications.


Physics of Low dimension:

  •  Length scales in modern solid state physics, Dimensionality, Practical definition of dimensionality, Two dimensional electron gas, One dimensional electron gas.


Thin film Growth techniques:

  • Theory of film growth, Spin coating, Langmuir-Blodgett film deposition, Electrodeposition, Self assembly, Chemical bath deposition, Spray pyrolyis,  Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition, Atomic layer deposition.



  • Lithography and pattern transfer, Etching, Ion implantation, Metallisation, dielectric deposition etc., Passivation.



  • Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy etc.



  • Heterostructures,Quantum wells, Multi Quantum Wells, Superlattices, Quantum wires, Quantum dots, Carbon nanotubes etc.



  • Quantum cascade lasers, Single electron transistors, Solar cells, Molecular diodes, Nanotude transistors, Nanowire Lasers etc.



  • Cell biology, Low dimensional Fluid flow, Electrophoresis, Bio chips and arrays, DNA computers, Bio sensors and detection methods.



  • Application of nanotechnology in medicine: X ray medical imaging with nanoparticles, nanoparticle therapeutics, nanorobotics surgery. 



Two to three in-course assessment tests 30%
End of course written examination of two hours duration 70%

PHY423ME3:Energy Physics

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)


Objectives :

  • To understand the nature of various type of available energy resources.
  • To introduce the physics of energy generation from various types energy resources.
  • To familiarise with the energy conversion technology and energy applications. 



  • Different kind of energy sources; renewable energy sources and non renewable energy sources, effect of energy on the world socioeconomics and politics.  Conservation of energy and momentum , energy flow; streamline, turbulence and pipe flow, heat transfer processes; conduction, convection and radiation , properties of transparent materials, heat transfer by mass transport and multimode transfer of heat.

Solar energy

  • Solar radiation, Effect of earth atmosphere  on solar radiation, solar collectors, measurement of solar radiation, Estimation of solar radiation, Solar water heating, unsheltered heaters, sheltered heaters, system with separate storage, selective surfaces, evacuated collectors, other uses of solar heaters; air heaters, crop driers, space heat, space cooling, water desalination, solar ponds, Solar concentrators; photovoltaic generation, solar cells, other types of photoelectric and thermoelectric generation, Photosynthetic process, photophysics.

Hydro power

  • Principles, assessing the resource for small installations, turbines, hydroelectric systems, hydraulic ram pump.

Wind power

  • Turbine types and terms, Basic theory, Dynamic matching,  stream tube theory, Characteristics of the wind , power extraction by a turbine, electrical and mechanical power generation.


  • Bio fuel classification, Biomass production for energy farming, direct combustion for heat, pyrolysis, thermo chemical processes; Alcoholic fermentation, anaerobic digestion for biogas, agrochemical fuel extraction.

Wave Energy

  • Wave motion, wave energy and power, wave patterns and power extraction devices.

Tidal power

  • Cause of tides, Enhancement of tides, tidal flow power and tidal range power.

Geo thermal energy

  • Origin of geothermal energy, dry rock and hot aquifer analysis, harnessing geothermal resources.   

Nuclear energy :

  • Nuclear fuel, Fusion and fission processes, nuclear reactors, reactor types, reactor design,nuclear radiation pollution and health effects.

Fossil Fuel energy

  • Fossil fuel process, oil,  natural gasses and coal.

Energy storage and distribution :

  • Importance of energy storage, Biological storage, chemical storage, heat storage, electrical storage, fuel cells, mechanical storage and distribution of energy.

Evaluation :

In-course assessment tests 15%
Seminar  15%
End of course written examination of two hours duration 70%
(Expected to answer three out of four questions)