# Core Course Units

(90 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Recall the basic laboratory skills
- Improve skills on experimental measurements in optics, electromagnetism and electronics
- Design and present content-oriented attractive posters

**Course Description:**

- Students have to attend weekly practical sessions each of three hours duration
- Students will be trained on preparing and presenting good scientific posters
- On completion of each weekly experiment, students should submit a brief report
- During each semester, students have to submit two full reports on experiments chosen by the lecturer in-charge

**Evaluation:**

Continuous assessment on practical classes and brief lab reports | 20% |

Four full reports | 20% |

End of semester practical examinations | 40% |

Poster presentation during the course | 20% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- J.F. James, An Introduction to Practical Laboratory Optics, Cambridge University Press (2014)
- Yaakov Kraftmakher, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics (2
^{nd}edition), World Scientific (2014) - G.L. Squires, Practical Physics (4
^{th}edition), Cambridge University Press (2001)

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Distinguish various types of bonds between atoms and the structures of crystals
- Explain elastic, thermal and electrical properties of matter
- Classify insulators, semiconductors and conductors

**Syllabus:**

**Structure of matter:**

- Nature of matter, charge to mass ratio of electrons, mass spectrograph, determination of the electron charge,crystals, types of crystals, crystal structures, unit cells, FCC, BCC and HCP structures, crystal defects, X-ray diffraction, nuclear mass and radius, nuclear particles, isotopes, isobars.

Inter-atomic forces:

- Molecules and binding forces, Van der Waals, ionic, covalent and metallic bonds.

Elastic and thermal properties of solids:

- Monoatomic and diatomic linear chains, boundary conditions, phonon density of states, heat capacity of solids, Debye model, thermal expansion, Grüneisenparameter,thermal conductivity of insulators, phonon-phonon scattering (normal and umklapp), scattering by defects, scattering at boundaries.

Electrical properties:

- Free electron model of metals, qualitative introduction to band theory of solids, metals, semiconductors and insulators, electrons and holes, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, donors and acceptors, p-n junctions.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics (8
^{th}edition), Wiley(2004) - M.A. Wahab, Solid State Physics: Structure and Properties of Materials (2
^{nd}edition), Alpha Science International Ltd. (2005) - M.A. Omar, Elementary Solid State Physics: Principles and Applications (4
^{th}edition), Addison-Wesley (1994)

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

** ****Objectives**:

- Illustrate the basic principles of geometrical optics
- Explain interference, diffraction and polarization
- Utilize the concepts of special relativity in physics problems

**Syllabus:**

**Ray Optics:**

- Huygen’s principle, spherical mirrors, thick and thin lenses, lens combinations, lens aberration, eye pieces, telescope, microscope.

Interference:

- Wave nature of light, two beam interference on non-reflecting films, Michelson interferometer, Rayleigh refractometer, multiple beam interference, Fabry–Perot interferometer and its chromatic resolving power, interference filters.

FraunhÖfer diffraction:

- Single slit diffraction, chromatic resolving power of a prism, resolving power of telescopes and microscopes.
- Double slit diffraction, Michelson’s stellar interferometer, multiple slit diffraction, diffraction and reflection gratings, chromatic resolving power of gratings, echelon gratings.

Fresnel diffraction:

- Diffraction at a straight edge, diffraction at circular apertures and obstacles, the zone plate.

Polarization:

- Polarization by absorption, polarization by reflection, scattering and double refraction, properties of ordinary and extra-ordinary rays, quarter wave and half wave plates, interference of polarized light.

Special theory of relativity:

- Invariance of the velocity oflight in vacuumand its experimental confirmation, Einstein’s postulates, Lorentz transformation of space and time co-ordinates,time dilation, length contraction and their experimental confirmations, transformation of velocities, mass-velocity and mass-energy relationships, transformation of momentum and energy, simple applications of special relativity.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- F.A. Jenkins and H.E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (4
^{th}edition), McGraw-Hill (1976) - N. Subrahmanyam, B.V. Lal and M.N. Avadhanulu, A Textbook of Optics, S. Chand and Co. Ltd. (2006)
- A.P.French, Special Relativity, The MIT Introductory Physics Series, W.W. Norton and Company (1968)

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)** **

**Objectives:**

- Recall basic mathematics required to formulate electromagnetic theory
- Apply Maxwell’s equations in problems related to electro-statics and magneto-statics
- Make use of electromagnetic theory to solve problems in changing electromagnetic fields

**Syllabus:**

**Electrostatics: **

- Coulomb’s law, electric field (
**E**) and potential (**V**), Gauss’s law in vacuum, Laplace’s and Poisson’s equation, electric dipoles, uniqueness theorems, conducting sphere in electric field, the method of images: point charge near conducting sphere and line charge near conducting cylinder as examples, capacitance of parallel cylinders, work and energy in electrostatics, force on a charged conductor. - Isotropic dielectrics, polarization charges, Gauss’s law in dielectric, permittivity and susceptibility, properties of electric displacement (
**D**) and electric field (**E**),boundary conditions at dielectric boundaries, relationship betweenelectric field (**E**) and polarization (**P**), thin slab in electric field, dielectric sphere in an electric field, local fields inside dielectrics, Clausius-Mossotti equation.

Magnetostatics:

- Forces between current carrying elements, Gauss’s law, dipoles, magnetic scalar potential, Ampère’s law, magnetic vector potential.
- Magnetic media, magnetization, permeability and magnetic susceptibility, properties of magnetic field (B) and magnetic field intensity (H), boundary conditions at surfaces, methods of calculating B and H, magnetisable sphere in a uniform magnetic field, electromagnets, magnetic circuits, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, Curie-Weiss law, domains, hysteresis, permanent magnets.

Time varying EM fields:

- Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s law, magnetic energy, self-inductance, inductance of a long solenoid,coaxial cylinders, parallel cylinders, mutual inductance, transformers, displacement current, Maxwell’s equations, electromagnetic waves.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics (4
^{th}edition), Addition-Wesley (2012) - R.P. Feynman,R. B. Leighton and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, VolII, Addison-Wesley (1964)
- W.J. Duffin, Electricity and Magnetism (4
^{th}edition),McGraw-Hill(1973)

# Elective Course Units

(20 hours of lectures and 30 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Outline the features of Matlab/C
^{++} - Apply numerical methods in solving physics problems
- Design algorithms to simulate physics problems

**Syllabus:**

**Introduction: **

- Programming languages and algorithms, scientific software libraries.

Programming:

- Scientific programming in Matlab/C
^{++}.

Numerical methods with programming exercises in Matlab/C^{++}:

- Root finding, solving linear systems by direct and iterative methods, interpolation and extrapolation, differentiation and integration, curve fitting, matrices and eigenvalue problems, linear and nonlinear equations, eigen-systems, solution of ordinary differential equations, elementary statistics, Fourier transforms.

Computer simulation of the physics problems:

- The motion of falling objects, two body problems, mini solar system, two body scattering, harmonic oscillator, electric circuit oscillator, electric field due to a charge distribution.

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage: Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)**

** **

**Recommended Readings:**

- Stormy Attaway, MATLAB, A Practical Introduction to Programming and Problem Solving (3
^{rd }edition), Elsevier Inc. (2013) - P.L. Devries and J.E. Hasbun, A First Course in Computational Physics (2
^{nd }edition), Jones and Barlett Publishers (2011) - B.R. Hunt, R.L. Lipsmanand J.M. Rosenberg, A Guide to MATLAB for Beginners and Experienced Users (3
^{rd }edition), Cambridge University Press (2014)

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Relate mathematical techniques with physics problems
- Utilize vector and matrix analyses in physics
- Apply special functions in solving problems of quantum mechanics and electrodynamics

**Syllabus:**

**Vector analysis:**

- Introductiontovector algebra, vector calculus and their applications in Physics.

Co-ordinate systems:

- Curvilinear co-ordinates and special co-ordinate systems, differential vector operations, separation of variables and their applications in Physics

Matrices:

- Matrix methods of solving simultaneous equations, properties of Hermitian, unitary, Pauli and Diracmatrices; diagonalization of matrices, matrix representation of eigenvalue problems, matrix representation of kets, bras and operators and their applications in quantum mechanics.

Differential equations:

- Introductionto the method of solving first order differential equations, partial differential equations and their applications in solving physics problems.

Special functions:

- BesselandHankelfunctions, Green functions, Hermite, Legendre and other special polynomial functions and their use in solving physics problems.

Integral transforms:

- Introduction to Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms, use of Fourier transformin quantum mechanics to relate wavefunctions in real and momentum spaces, Introduction to Laplace transform and its applications in physics.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- Jordan and Smith, Mathematical Techniques (4
^{th}edition), Oxford University press(2008). - Mary L. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences (3
^{rd }edition), John Wiley and Sons (2005). - Chun Wa Wong, Introduction to Mathematical Physics: Methods and Concepts (2
^{nd}edition), Oxford University Press (2013).

# Supplementary Subject Area: Electronics

### (To those who are not offering physics as a principal subject at level 2G)

### Electronic Course Units (Electives for Non-Physics Students)

(20 hrs of lectures and 30 hrs of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Develop the response of passive electronic components to alternating current
- Describe insulators, conductors and different kinds of semiconductors
- Discuss the characteristics and applications of p-n junction diodes and transistors in basic analogue and digital circuits

**Syllabus:**

**Alternating current:**

- Production of alternating emf (electro-motive force), definition of frequency, phase and period, sine wave and other wave forms, ac quantities, rms (root-mean-square) and peak values, ac in a resistor, ac in a capacitor, capacitive reactance, ac in an inductor, inductive reactance, LCR circuits.

Semiconductors:

- Origin of energy bands, classification of solids into conductors, semiconductors and insulators, intrinsic semiconductors, extrinsic semiconductors, position of Fermi level, p-n junction diodes.

p-n junction diodes:

- Fabrication of p-n junctions, formation of a depletion region and its properties, biasing of p-n junctions, forward biased p-n junctions, reverse biased p-n junctions, avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown, p-n junction diode as a rectifier; half wave rectifier, full wave rectifier, smoothing and voltage regulation, waveform shaping, clipping and clamping, tunnel diodes, junction diodes as sensors and radiation detectors.

Bipolar JunctionTransistor(BJT):

- Fabrication of BJTs, transistor action, transistor configuration, transistor characteristics, input and transfer characteristics, output characteristics, transistor biasing, fixed bias, collector bias, potential divider bias, ac and dc load line, action of a BJT as a voltage amplifier, action of a BJT as a switch, thyristor and its operation, triac and its applications.

Operational amplifier:

- Characteristics, parameters of operational amplifiers, inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, function of operational amplifiers as voltage follower, summer, subtractor, integrator and differentiator.

Basic digital circuit:

- Boolean Algebra, logic simplification, Boolean operation and expression, laws and rules of Boolean Algebra,AND, NOT, OR, NAND and NOR gates and their functions, De Morgan’s Theorem, truth tables, half adder and full adder, X-OR and X-NOR gates.

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage:** Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

** **

**Recommended Readings:**

- W.H. Kayt, Jr.J.E. Kemmerly and S.M. Durbin, Engineering Circuit Analysis (6
^{th }edition), Tata McGraw Hill (2006) - D.A. Neaman, Semiconductor Physics and Devices(3
^{rd}edition), Tata McGraw Hill (2007) - J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics (2
^{nd }edition), Tata McGraw Hill (2002)

(20 hrs of lectures and 30 hrs of practicals)

** **

**Prerequisite:**Should have offered ELE241GE2

**Objectives:**

- Analyze the functions of electronic circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and multi-vibrators
- Design and build amplifiers, oscillators and multi-vibrators
- Discuss different types of power- and feedback- amplifiers

**Syllabus:**

**Unipolar or Field Effect Transistor(FET):**

- Fabrication of FET, transistor action, transistor configuration, transistor characteristics- input and transfer characteristics, output characteristics, transistor biasing-fixed bias, collector bias, potential divider bias, ac and dc load line, action of FET as voltage amplifier, action of FET as switch, Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) and its use.

**Amplifiers:**

**Small signal amplifiers: **

- Single stage BJT amplifier configuration, hybrid model, voltage and currentgain, input and output impedances, common source and common drain amplifiers, FET amplifier analysis, multistage amplifiers, Darlington pair, high frequency amplifiers, high frequency models, Miller’s theorem.

Feedback amplifiers:

- Negative feedback, positive feedback, types of feedback, current feedback, voltage feedback, Bootstrap amplifiers.

Power amplifiers:

- Classes of amplifiers- Class-A amplifier, inductive coupled amplifier, transformer coupled power amplifier, class-B amplifier, complementary symmetric class-B and class AB power amplifiers, push-pull amplifier, Darlington pair class A amplifier.

Oscillators:

- Condition for oscillation, RC oscillators, Wein-Bridge Oscillators, Hartley oscillators, Colpitt’s oscillators and crystal oscillators.

Multi-vibrators:

- Bistable, monostableandastable multi-vibrators

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage:** Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

**Recommended Readings:**

- A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith,Micro Electronic circuits (6
^{th}edition), Oxford University Press (2010) - J. Millman, C.C. Halkias and S. Jit, Millman’s Electronic Devices and Circuits (2
^{nd}edition), Tata McGraw-Hill (2007) - J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics (2
^{nd }edition), Tata McGrawHill(2002)