Course Title 
Practical Physics IV and Literature
Survey 

Course Code 
PHY301M4 

Credit Value 
04 

Hourly breakdown 
Theory 
Practical 
Independent Learning 

– 
135 
65 

Objectives 

· Prepare students with various modern and
advanced experimental setups and orient them for research. · Enhance the students’ understanding of
various basic concepts in physics through measuring physical quantities. · Develop the students’ soft skills such as
writing scientific reports, learning through discussion and oral presentation
of their scientific findings. 

Intended Learning Outcomes 

· Improve experimental skills to carry out
laboratory practical in various topics · Explain experimental findings in relation
to existing theories · Interpret the experimental results · Design and construct electronic circuits · Access eresources effectively for writing
scientific articles · Improve reading, writing and presenting skills 

Course Contents 

· Solid state Physics: Solar Cells
characterization, UVVIS spectroscopy, Bandgap and Hall effect measurements. · Optics: Velocity of light, Michelson
Interferometer. · Modern Physics: Millikan’s Oil drop,
Electron spin resonance, Fine beam tube, Planck’s Constant, Gamma radiation,
Black Body Radiation, Franck hertz tube, Zeeman effect. · Electronics: Analog Computing Wein
bridge/Colpitts Oscillator, Twostage Amplifier, 555 Timer.
Literature survey: The students shall carry out extensive
literature survey on preassigned topics by accessing eresources and printed
materials. A written report on the topic assigned shall be submitted and an
oral presentation shall be delivered to a panel of examiners and the special
degree students. 

Teaching and Learning Methods 

In
person laboratory demonstration, elearning, handouts and guided learning Practical
reports/Presentation Literature
survey and Presentation 

Assessment Strategy 

Practical
Literature
survey 
75 % 25 % 

Recommended References 

i
Squires, G. L.,
Practical Physics, (4th Edition), University of Cambridge (2001) i
Sinclair, I., Practical
Electronics Handbook, (6^{th} Edition) Elsevier publishers, Inc.
(2007) i
Gupta, S.L., and
Kumar. V., Handbook of electronics, Pragati Prakashan (2012) 
Course Title 
Classical Mechanics and
Relativity 

Course Code 
PHY302M3 

Credit Value 
03 

Hourly breakdown 
Theory 
Practical 
Independent Learning 

45 
– 
105 

Objectives 

·
Introduce fundamental conservation laws to analyse mechanical systems. · Outline the basic principles of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian
formulation of classical mechanics and apply these principles to solve key
problems. ·
Introduce Einstein’s general and special relativity and cosmology. ·
Outline the concept and uses of four vectors in relativistic
kinematics.


Intended Learning Outcomes 

·
Solve advanced dynamical problems involving classical particles by
applying the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations ·
Explain the calculus of variations and apply it to solve problems ·
Formulate the HamiltonJacobi equations and apply them to the solution
of problems ·
Solve problems in basic calculations in relativistic kinematics and
dynamics 

Course Contents 

Lagrangian mechanics: ·
Generalised coordinates, holonomic and nonholonomic constraints,
Principle of least action and the derivation of Lagrange’s equations of
motion, Application of Lagrange’s equations to solve simple problems,
Conservation laws and symmetries in nature, Constraints and the method of
Lagrange’s undetermined multipliers, Generalized force and generalised
momentum.
·
Vector treatment of motion of a particle in three dimensions, moving
frames of reference, effects of the earth’s rotation, motion under a central
conservative force, the inverse square law, scattering crosssections, motion
of a charge particle in uniform and nonuniform electric and magnetic fields. The twobody problem: ·
The centre of mass and relative coordinates, elastic collisions,
scattering crosssections in centre of mass and laboratory frames.


Rigid body motion: ·
Rotational motion of a rigid body, moment of inertia, principal axes
of inertia, gyroscopic motion. Small oscillations and normal modes
Hamiltonian Mechanics: · Hamiltonian and the Hamilton’s equations of motion, simple
applications, ignorable coordinates, the symmetric top, symmetries and
conservation laws.
Special Relativity: · Review of postulates of special relativity and Lorentz transformation
equations, four vectors, transformation of velocity, momentum and force using
four vectors, field of a moving charge via force transformation, relativistic
collision and decay problems. ·
Transformation of wave number vector, radial and transverse Doppler
effects in optics.
· Nonmathematical introduction to general relativity, Einstein’s
approach to gravity, black holes, concept of curved space time, experimental
test of general relativity. Rudiments of cosmology. · 

Teaching and Learning
Methods 

In
person lectures, tutorial discussions, elearning, handouts and guided
learning 

Assessment Strategy 


Incourse
Assessments
End
of course examination 
30% 70% 

Recommended References 

· Kogut, J., Introduction to Relativity, Harcourt
Academic Press, USA (2000) · Taylor, F. and Wheeler,
A., Spacetime Physics: Introduction to special relativity, 2nd Edition, W. H.
Freeman press (1992). ·
Timon, I., Mechanics and Relativity, Delft University of Technology,
(2018) 
Course Title  Quantum Mechanics  
Course Code  PHY303M3  
Credit Value  03  
Hourly breakdown  Theory  Practical  Independent Learning  
45  –  105  
Objectives  
· Introduce a set of postulates and the necessary characteristics of quantum mechanics · Solve the Time Independent Schrödinger Equation for simple quantum mechanical problems in one, two and three dimensions. · Introduce the method of solving central field problems in spherical polar coordinates and the concept of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. · Formulate matrix representation of operators and wavefunctions.
 
Intended Learning Outcomes  
· Analyze physical processes/systems using the uncertainty principle. · Evaluate the quantities: eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, position probability density function, expectation values, uncertainties, etc., associated with quantum systems, using wave functions and operators. · Apply the Schrödinger equation to analyze idealistic (1D, 2D and 3D) potential systems. · Apply the Schrödinger equation in spherical polar coordinates for a hydrogenic atom to obtain possible electronic energy levels and wave functions. · Obtain matrix representation of operators and wave functions, specifically of angular momentum operators and their eigenfunctions. · Derive the momentum space wave function of quantum systems and use it to extract information of these systems in a more convenient way.  
Course Contents  
Introduction: · Evidence of inadequacy of classical mechanics, Some necessary characteristics of quantum theory, The waveparticle duality, the wave function and probability amplitudes, wave packets, the Schrödinger equation, eigenvalue equations and their place in the quantum formalism, Calculation of expectation values of system parameters. · One dimensional potential well and energy quantization, potential barriers, reflection and transmission coefficients, tunnelling, one dimensional simple harmonic oscillator, symmetric potentials and parity. · Operator formalism and the basic postulates of quantum mechanics: · Linear Hermitian operators and observables, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, expectation values, rate of change of expectation values, degeneracy, simultaneous observability and commutation, the uncertainty principle. The basic postulates of quantum mechanics. Application of Schrödinger equation to three dimensional problems: · Free particle and particle confined to a box, Schrödinger equation in spherical polar coordinates and solving central field problems, Spherical Harmonics, orbital and magnetic quantum numbers.
 
· The ladder operators in the linear harmonic oscillator problem and the angular momentum. Introduction of spin as an intrinsic property of particles.
· The energy of a rigid rotator, the deuteron; The energy, the energy level diagram and the wavefunctions of oneelectron atoms.
· Matrix representation of wave functions and operators. Matrix representation of angular momentum operators, eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices, Pauli spin matrices.
· The vector model, spectroscopic notation, magnetic dipole moment of an electron in an atom due to its orbital and spin angular momenta, Force experienced by an electron in an atom in the presence of an external magnetic field.
· The particle exchange operator, The effect of indistinguishability of atomic particles on quantum formalism, Pauli exclusion principle.  
Teaching and Learning Methods  
In person lectures, tutorial discussions, elearning, handouts and guided learning
 
Assessment Strategy  
Incourse Assessments End of course examination  30% 70%  
Recommended References  

Course Title 
Advanced Electronics 

Course Code 
PHY304M3 

Credit Value 
03 

Hourly breakdown 
Theory 
Practical 
Independent Learning 

45 
– 
105 

Objectives 

· Design simple amplifier and oscillator circuits using BJT and FET · Analysis the BJT and FET amplifiers at wide range of frequencies · Design analogue electronic circuits using operational amplifiers, combinational
and sequential electronic circuits · Discuss the basics of
microprocessor and explore its applications 

Intended Learning Outcomes 

·
Apply small signal analysis of a BJT and FET circuits using small
signal hybrid π model at low and high frequencies ·
Design frequency oscillators and amplifier circuits using BJT and FET ·
Explain the use of operational amplifier in analogue electronics ·
Design simple combinational and sequential electronic circuits · Discuss the potential
applications of microcontrollers and microprocessors in daytoday life. 

Course Contents 

Transistor amplifiers: Singlestage BJT amplifier configurations, small signal analysis and
frequency response of common emitter and emitter follower amplifiers,
multistage amplifiers, Introduction to field effect transistor (FET), types
of FETs: junctionFET (JFET), metaloxidesemiconductor FET (MOSFET),
characteristics of JFET and MOSFET, JFET and MOSFET amplifier circuits. Small
signal analysis of JFET amplifiers Feedback circuits: Positive feedback circuits: Theory of oscillation, RC oscillators:
phase shift and Wein’s bridge oscillators, LC oscillators: Hartley and
Colpitt’s oscillators, comparison between RC and LC oscillators, feedback
amplifiers (negative feedback circuits): properties, topologies, design and
application Analogue computing: Differential amplifiers, introduction to operational amplifiers,
characteristics of ideal and nonideal operational amplifiers, design of
analogue electronic circuits with operational amplifiers, 555 timer and
application Digital electronics: Logic gates, Boolean functions and operations, laws and rules of
Boolean algebra, DeMorgan’s theorem, introduction to TTL and CMOS logic,
Boolean expressions and truth tables, Karnaugh maps, Combinational circuits,
Sequential circuits: flipflops, registers, counters, State diagrams and
tables, State minimization, and output realization


Introduction to microcontrollers and microprocessors Microcontroller: Architecture, instruction set, input, output, memory,
data path and control, introduction to microcontrollers and application 

Teaching and Learning
Methods 

Inperson lectures, tutorial
discussions, elearning, handouts and guided learning 

Assessment Strategy 

Incourse
Assessments
End
of course examination 
30% 70% 

Recommended References 

·
Donald, A., Semiconductor Physics and DevicesBasic Principles (4th edition),
McGrawHill (2011) · Anant, A., and Jeffrey, L., Foundations of Analog and Digital
Electronic Circuits, The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Architecture and
Design, (1st edition) Elsevier publishers (2005) · Thomas L. Floyd, David M. Buchla, Basic Operational Amplifiers and
Linear Integrated Circuits (2nd edition), Prentice Hall (1999) · M. Morris Mano and
Michael D. Ciletti, Digital Design with an Introduction to the Verilog HDL
(5th edition), Pearson
Education (2013) 
Course Title 
Advanced Statistical Physics 

Course Code 
PHY305M3 

Credit Value 
03 

Hourly breakdown 
Theory 
Practical 
Independent Learning 

45 
– 
105 

Objectives 

·
Introduce the probability distribution function for a system in its
allowed microstates ·
Interpret entropy in terms of the information related to this probability
distribution. · Explain the Boltzmann equation for the equilibrium probability
distribution in terms of microstates’ quantities, such as energy and
particle number. ·
Distinguish the microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical
formalism · Explain simple physical
phenomena such as phase equilibrium and chemical reactions by applying
statistical mechanics 

Intended Learning Outcomes 

· Explain statistical physics and thermodynamics as logical consequences
of the postulates of statistical mechanics ·
Discuss the quantum mechanical formulation of statistical mechanics ·
Relate equilibrium thermodynamics quantities to some key statistical
physics parameter · Illustrate the behaviour of important physical system by the
application of equilibrium statistical mechanics ·
Apply Ensemble theory in classical statistical mechanics and
thermodynamics ·
Apply the principles of statistical mechanics to selected problems · Combine techniques from statistical mechanics with range of situations
relevant to statistical mechanics


Course Contents 

Introduction: ·
Elementary probability, Binomial, Gaussian and Poisson distributions. ·
Basic postulates, quantum states and energy levels, microstates and
macrostates.
·
Thermodynamic probability, statistical definition of temperature and
entropy, the micro canonical distribution.
·
Boltzmann distribution and canonical partition function, applications
to paramagnetic system, perfect gas, the MaxwellBoltzmann velocity distribution,
theorem of equipartition of energy.
·
Chemical potential µ, the grand canonical distribution and the grand
partition function. ·
Quantum systems of noninteracting identical particles, occupation
number representation. Fermi – Dirac and Bose – Einstein statistics,
application to black body radiation, specific heat capacity of electrons at
low temperature, thermal emission of electrons, BoseEinstein condensation.
Region of validity of classical approximation.
·
Monatomic and diatomic gases, ortho and para hydrogen. Thermodynamic
equations for single phase one component systems, the GibbsDuhem relation,
chemical reactions and the law of mass action. · 

Teaching and Learning
Methods 

Inperson
lectures, tutorial discussions, elearning, handouts and guided learning


Assessment Strategy 

Incourse
Assessments
End
of course examination 
30% 

70% 

Recommended References 

·
Swendsen, R., An Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and
Thermodynamics, (1^{st} edition) Oxford University Press (2012). ·
Reif, F., Fundamentals of Statistical and Thermal Physics, Waveland Pr
Inc, (2009). ·
Charles, K., and Kroemer, H., W.H. Freeman (1980) ·
Mandl, F., Statistical physics (2nd edition), Chichester,Wiley, (1988) ·
Landsberg, P. T., Thermodynamics
and statistical mechanics, Oxford University Press (1990) ·
Stowe, K.,Introduction to Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics (1st
edition). John Wiley & Sons (1983) ·
Schroeder, D., An Introduction to Thermal Physics, Addison Wesley
Longman (2000) ·
Gould, H., and Tobochnik, J., Statistical and Thermal Physics.
Princeton University Press (2010) 
Course Title  Instrumentation and Material Characterization Techniques  
Course Code  PHY306M2  
Credit Value  02  
Hourly breakdown  Theory  Practical  Independent Learning  
20  30  50  
Objectives  
· Introduce basic principles of materials characterization techniques · Introduce relevant measurement theories associated with varies material characterisation techniques. · Describe varies measurement techniques for material characterization. · Familiarize with selected materials characterization techniques · Introduce the methods for analyzing the data obtained using the above techniques  
Intended Learning Outcomes  
· Explain principles of optical, microscopic, thermal and electrical techniques used in characterization of materials and devices · Identify appropriate technique for characterization of materials and devices for different applications · Solve practical problems in materials characterization utilizing appropriate techniques, skills, and modern analytical tools  
Course Contents  
Lab view for Instrumentation: LabVIEW Programming Principles, LabVIEW Environment, Data Types, Arrays and Clusters, Error Handling, Documentation, Case Structures, Sequence Structures, Event Structures, Synchronization and Communication with instruments, Mechanical Actions of Booleans and Instrumentation workshops. Characterisation: Optical characterisation: Infrared spectroscopy, Photoluminescence, transient absorption spectroscopy, UVVIS spectroscopy, Ellipsometry. Structural characterisation: Xray diffraction, Scanning Probe microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy. Electrical characterisation: The fourprobe method, Resistivity profiling, Currentvoltage, Capacitance – voltage, Hall effect, Deep level transient spectroscopy, Time of flight, Kelvin probe. Thermal characterisation: Peltier effect, Seebeck effect, Thermogravimetric analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermo mechanical analyzer.  
Teaching and Learning Methods  
In person Lectures, tutorial discussions, elearning, handouts, guided learning practical demonstration  
Assessment Strategy  
Incourse Assessments Practical Examination End of course examination  30 % 20 % 50 %  
Recommended References  
