# Core Course Units

(90 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Demonstrateskills on applicationof modern physics and thermal physics concepts
- Exhibit health and safety issues in relation to lasers and other advanced instruments
- Demonstrate the interpersonal skills through group projects and seminar presentations

**Course Description:**

- Students have to attend weekly practical sessions each of three hours duration
- Students will do group-projects and seminar presentations
- On completion of each weekly experiment, students should submit a brief report
- Students have to submit at least two full reports in the first semester and one full report in the second semester on experiments chosen by the lecturer in-charge

**Evaluation:**

Continuous assessment on practical classes and brief lab reports | 20% |

Three full reports | 20% |

End of semester practical examinations | 20% |

Seminar presentation during the course | 20% |

Group project | 20% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- A.C Melissinos and J. Napolitano, Experiments in Modern Physics (2
^{nd}edition), Academic Press (2003) - Yaakov Kraftmakher, Experiments and Demonstrations in Physics (2
^{nd}edition), World Scientific (2014) - G.L. Squires, Practical Physics (4
^{th}edition), Cambridge University Press (2001)

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Outline the inadequacy of classical physics and the need for modern theories
- Apply quantum concepts to understand atomic spectra
- Describe the basics of nuclear and elementary particle physics

**Syllabus:**

**Quantum Physics:**

- Inadequacyof classical mechanics, Photo electric effect, Compton effect, wave particle duality, de Broglie wave, Heisenberg’s uncertainly principle, Schrödinger wave equation, probability density, solution of simple time independent Schrödinger equations-the step potential and the potential well.

Atomic Physics:

- Scattering ofparticles,alpha particle scattering, Thomson atomic model, Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom,Rutherford model of the atom, estimation of the size of the nucleus, Bohr’s theory and its limitations, Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom and its solution, the total, orbital, and magnetic quantum numbers, atomic spectra, Zeeman effect, fine structure of spectra and spin quantum number, many electron atoms, production and properties of X-rays.

Nuclear Physics:

- Nuclear composition, mass and size of nucleus, nuclear forces, nuclear stability, radioactive transformation, liquid drop model of nuclei and its applications, nuclear reactions, nuclear fission and fusion, a brief introduction to elementary particles.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- K.S. Krane, Modern Physics (2
^{nd}edition), Wiley (1995) - J. Taylor, C. Zafiratos and M.A. Dubson, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers (2
^{nd}edition), Addison-Wesley (2003) - A.P. French and E.F. Taylor, Introduction to Quantum Physics (The MIT introductory physics series), W.W. Norton and Company (1978)

(45 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the laws of classical thermodynamics and formulations of statistical physics
- Apply principles of thermodynamics to simple engineering systems
- Make use of kinetic theory to understand the properties of materials

**Syllabus:**

**Thermodynamics:**

- Zeroth law and the concept of temperature, work, heat, internal energy and the first law of thermodynamics, second law of thermodynamics, Carnot’s theorem, temperature, entropy, equation of state, Maxwell’s thermodynamic relations and their application to simple systems, production and measurement of low temperatures, the third law of thermodynamics.

Thermal radiation:

- The law of blackbody radiation, application of thermodynamics to blackbody radiation, radiation pyrometer.

Kinetic theory:

- Ideal gases, Van der Waal’s gases, classical theory of specific heats of gases and solids, transport phenomena.

Statistical Physics:

- Thermodynamic probability and its relation to entropy, Boltzmann distribution and its classical limit, partition functions, application to solid like assemblies and gaseous systems, Maxwell’s distribution of velocities in gases.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- M.W. Zemansky and R.H. Dittman,Heat and Thermodynamics (7
^{th}edition), McGraw Hill (1997) - B.N.Roy, Fundamentals of Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics, Wiley (2002)
- M.J. Moran and H.N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics (5
^{th}edition), Wiley (2006)

# Elective Courses

(25 hours of lectures and tutorials plus 15 hours of clinical site visits)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the principles of physics behind the operation of therapeutic and diagnostic medical equipments such as linear accelerators, MRI, PET and ultrasound scanner
- Explain the physical aspects of radiation dosimetry, treatment planning, dose calculations and distributions
- Identify safety and radiation protection principles and procedures

**Syllabus:**

**Radiation Physics: **

- Review of atomic structure, characteristics of x- rays, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, pair production, nuclear decay, radioactivity, radiation physics, interaction of radiation with matter, radiation detection and radiation dosimetry.

Medical imaging physics:

- Principles of image formation and quality, films and screens, digital imaging, image reconstruction with back projection, X- ray Computed Tomography (CT) and image processing, radiography (mammography and fluoroscopy), principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), mapping and applications, nuclear medicine imaging [Gamma camera, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)], principles and practice of ultrasound imaging.

Radiotherapy physics and radiation protection:

- Medical transducers, standard equipments used in radiotherapy (linear accelerator and Cobalt teletherapy machine), basic physical aspects of photon and electron therapy, radiation treatment planning, dose calculations and distributions, radiation protection, safety considerations for patients and workers, quality assurance ofmedical devices.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 20% |

End of course examination | 70% |

Report on clinical exposure | 10% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- E.B. Podgorsak, Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students, Vienna, IAEA (2005)
- J.T. Bushberg, J.A. Seibert, E.M. LeidholdtJrand J.M. Boone, The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging (3
^{rd }edition), Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2011) - W.J. Meredith and J. B. Massey, The Fundamental Physics of Radiology (3
^{rd }edition), Butterworth-Heinemann (1977)

(30 hours of lectures and tutorials)

**Objectives:**

- Recall the historical developments of astrophysics
- Explain the formation and properties of solar system, stars and galaxies
- Describe the origin and the evolution of the universe

Syllabus:

**Introduction to astrophysics: **

- Historical background of astronomy, units in astronomy and observational measurement techniques, motions of heavenly bodies, celestial sphere and the atlas of stars, uses of optical instruments in astronomy and Doppler Effect.

Solar system:

- The origin of the solar system and extra-solar planets, moon and eclipses, terrestrial and Jovian planets, properties of the Sun.

Stars and galaxies:

- Formation and general properties of stars, measurement of basic stellar properties such as distance, luminosity, spectral classification, mass, density and radii, Stellar evolution and nucleo-synthesis, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, structure of the milky way, other galaxies and their properties.

Cosmology:

- Introduction to cosmology, the Hubble law, origin of the universe, the big bang theory, cosmic background radiation.

**Evaluation:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Recommended Readings:**

- B.W. Carroll and D.A. Ostlie, An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics (2
^{nd}edition), Addison-Wesley (2006) - J. Dufay, Introduction to Astrophysics: The Stars (reissue edition), Dover Publications (2012)
- B. Ryden and B.M. Peterson, Foundations of Astrophysics (1
^{st}edition), Addison-Wesley (2010)

# Supplementary Subject Area: Electronics

### Electronics Elective Courses for Non-Physics Students

#### (20 hours of lectures and 30 hours of practicals)

** Objectives:**

- Discuss the evolution of integrated circuits
- Design, build and test different types of linear amplifier circuits
- Make use of op-amps for applications including mathematical operations

Syllabus:

**Introduction: **

- Evolution of integrated circuits, integrated circuit components, monolithic and hybrid integrated circuits, Large Scale Integrated (LSI) circuits and Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) circuits.

Differential amplifiers:

- dc transfer characteristics, common mode and differential mode gains, differential amplifiers with constant current source and differential amplifiers with single ended input and output,typical op-amps- the 741 op-amp.

Practical op-amps:

- Open loop voltage gain, input offset voltage, input bias current, common-mode rejection, phase shift, slew rate, output resistance, operation and types, characteristics.

Applications of op-amps:

- Function of operational amplifiers as subtractor, integrator, differentiator and logarithmic amplifier, analogue computer,rectifiers, feedback limiters, comparators, Schmitt triggers, function generators, digital to analog converters, analog to digital converters, oscillators and 555 timer as a relaxation oscillator, as a pulse generator and as a monostable vibrator.

**Evaluation:**

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

Practical:

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage: **Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

**Recommended Readings:**

- Roy ChoudhuryD, JainB and Shail Jain, Linear Integrated Circuits (4
^{th }edition), New Age Publishers (2010) - Thomas L. Floyd and David Buchla, Basic Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall (1999)
- Sergio Franco, Design With Operational Amplifiers and AnalogIntegrated Circuits, McGraw Hill (1997)

#### (20 hours of lectures and 30 hours of practicals)

**Objectives:**

- Discuss the principles and uses of logic gates
- Design, construct and test sequential circuits
- Demonstrate skills in the construction of electronic circuits using logic gates.

Syllabus:

**Introduction to digital concepts: **

- Binary digits, logic levels and digital waveforms, basic logic operations, basic logic functions, digital system applications.

Number systems:

- Operations and codes, decimal numbers, binary numbers, decimal to binary conversion, binary arithmetic, octal numbers, hexa-decimal numbers, Binary Coded Decimal (BCD), digital codes, digital system applications, The Karnaugh map.

Logic gates:

- The inverter, The AND gate, The OR gate, The NAND gate, The NOR gate, The Exclusive OR and Exclusive NOR gates, digital system applications, logic families.

Digital Circuits:

- Combinational digital circuits: Basic adders, parallel binary adders, comparators, decoders, encoders, multiplexer (data selector), de-multiplexer, parity generators, checkers.
- Sequential digital circuits: Flip-flops, counters, registers and their applications.
- Microcomputer: Central Processing Unit (CPU), The memory- Read Only Memory (ROM), Programmable ROMs (PROMs and EPROMs), Read/Write Random Access Memories (RAMs).

Evaluation:

**Theory:**

In-course assessments | 30% |

End of course examination | 70% |

**Practical: **

Continuous assessment of practical reports | 40% |

End of course practical examinations | 60% |

**Weightage: **Theory (75%) and Practical (25%)

**Recommended Readings:**

- M. Morris Mano and Michael D. Ciletti, Digital Design with an Introduction to the Verilog HDL (5
^{th}edition), Pearson Education(2013) - Charles H. Roth, Jr., Fundamentals of Logic Design(4
^{th }edition), Jaico Books (2002) - John. F. Wakerly, Digital Design Principles and Practices(4
^{th }edition), Pearson Education (2007)